There is a famous saying in Bangladesh: “Lekha pora kore Je Gari Gora chore se” (Those who are educated will succeed). This traditional thinking of education as the ticket to the good life emerges in different ways and degrees in Bangladesh. Education is seen as something that is received rather than achieved and it has increasingly become dependent on certificates.
Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another.
The Government of Bangladesh places great importance on education and in this regard the Government has been trying to transform its huge population into human resource. Education for All (EFA) is the constitutional responsibility of the government. The constitution affirms equal rights in education for all. Since independence every government had taken several steps to increase the literacy rate in Bangladesh. But did they really work out? Our neighbor countries like India, Srilanka have made a great progress in literacy rate. But, where as the current literacy rate of Bangladesh is 63.8 %. If all the steps were successfully implemented, then the rate would be around 80% (daily Janakantho, 24 July, 10). So, here is short description about the whole education system and the role of government in Bangladesh. Governance:
Although the term governance is often used synonymously with the term government it tends rather to be used to describe the processes and systems by which a government or governor operate. The term government and governor describe the institutions and people involved. According to the World Bank………
Governance is "the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised for the common good. This includes (i) the process by which those in authority are selected, monitored and replaced, (ii) the capacity of the government to effectively manage its resources and implement sound policies, and (iii) the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them. " According to the UNDP……….
"Governance is the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority to manage a nation's affairs. It is the complex mechanisms, processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests, exercise their legal rights and obligations, and mediate their differences."
Education governance is concerned with how the funding, provision, ownership and regulation of education and training systems is coordinated, and at what level; local, regional, national and supranational. It is government who play the most significant role in coordinating education, the distribution of these responsibilities has been changing in response to calls for greater efficiency, effectiveness, accountability and democracy. Households, communities, and new kinds of private actors, are increasingly involved in many different aspects of education and training governance, raising questions about equity, participation and transparency.
Objectives of Education Governance:
• To inspire and create enthusiasm among the learners in their thoughts, deeds and daily life to establish moral, humanitarian, religious, cultural and social values in personal as well as in national life. • To develop awareness in the learners to protect the independence, sovereignty and integrity of Bangladesh. • To make education pragmatic, productive and creative with a view to bringing about changes in the socio-economic conditions of the country and making the students into a dutiful and responsible manpower with scientific outlook and help them develop the qualities of leadership. • To give special emphasis on primary and secondary...
...Education in Bangladesh is basically state financed. However, government depend heavily on external aid for financing the educational sector. Government allocate fund for the education sector out of its revenue expenditure & development expenditure. Revenue expenditure on educational sector has gradually increased over the year but development expenditure fluctuated.
Revenue expenditure on primary and secondary education also constitute major portion of revenue expenditure and it was consistent over year. Development expenditure on primary and secondary education also constitute major portion of development expenditure however it was not consistent over year. Expenditure on technical and higher education is not significant. Development expenditure on primary education are spent largely on building infrastructure whereas revenue expenditure are spent on teacher’s salary, grants stipend, etc.
Significant improvement has been achieved in terms of access to the primary education system. This has been possible because of several reason as example rapid growth in primary institution introduction of “Food for education” stipend for poor etc. there has been also significant improvement achieved in no of enrollment in primary education. But there is lack in quality education. According to survey percentage of student...
...BangladeshEducation at a Glance
Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with about 140 million people within an area of 147,570 thousand square kilometers. Its vast population is one of the major resources. But the problem lies in transforming the potential people into a productive force and ensuring a dynamic environment for social, economic and political development. Though the literacy rate is officially said to be 66%, but according to private survey the rate is only 42%. Education therefore has been recognized as a priority sector by all governments since her independence.
The mainstream education system in Bangladesh is structured as follows: -
Bangladesheducation system in brief
The three main educational systems in Bangladesh, ordered by decreasing student numbers, are:
• General Education System
• Madrasah Education System
• Technical - Vocational Education System
Other systems include a Professional Education System.
Each of these three main systems is divided into four levels:
• Primary Level (years 1 to 5)
• Secondary Level (years 6 to 10)
• Higher Secondary Level (years 11 and 12)
• Tertiary Level...
Education is the backbone of sustainable development. Education stimulates and empowers people to participate in their own development. A plan for sustainable development must address the issue of education because it plays a critical role not only in expanding further educational opportunities, but also in fostering basic intellectual abilities such as literacy that are crucial to success in a world where power is closely linked with knowledge. Primary education must receive a great amount of attention in developing nations for this reason.
In Bangladesh the expansion of primary education is crucial, just as it is in other developing nations within South Asia and beyond. Bangladesh’s low literacy rate of 39% is one of the many low development indicators that remind us how far our nation has yet to go in its pursuit of sustainable development. Primary education has been a priority in Bangladeshi politics since independence from Pakistan in 1971: basic measures to implement universal primary education were taken from the outset. However up until recent times, enrollment, as well as government spending on the education sector, has remained very low; little progress was seen in the primary education sector throughout the 1970s and 80s.
EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE OF...
Education situation of Bangladesh: 2013
Ancient Bangladesh had 1 primary school per 400 families, and many higher educational institutes. All was privately operated but subsidized by government. British ruler from 1760 to 1860 destroys all. Again, with the private effort Bangladeshi education system starts to grow. After final freedom of 1971 Bangladesh government starts it for all citizens. Now Bangladesh educational system is three-tiered and highly subsidized. The government of Bangladesh operates many schools in the primary and secondary levels. It also subsidizes parts of the funding for many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the government also funds state universities. It also has many non-subsidized private universities.
Bangladesh conforms fully to the Education ForAll (EFA) objectives, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children between the ages of 6-18 years will receive education free of cost.
Target of Education: Development of humanity and peoples oriented development, and to build up’ able to lead to progress such intellectual, logical, moralist, righteous, respectful to...
...Education prevents Bangladesh’s Economy
Education is one of the key elements that prevent Bangladesh from becoming a more economically developed country. Lack of education limits the people in Bangladesh, which leads to limiting Bangladesh’s economical development. There are various factors why education leads to Bangladesh economical issue.
East Pakistan gained independence from West Pakistan and Bangladesh was formed in 1971 (State Gov). From 1971 to 1991 there were various military coups and dictators who came to power (State Gov). In 1991 Bangladesh Nationalist Party came in to power and the Parliamentary democracy system was adopted (State Gov). Various ministries were formed for different sectors (Ison); the Ministry of Education was formed to look into the issues related to education and to resolve issues related to education. Most of the primary schools are privately owned in Bangladesh (Ison), so they do not really favor the poor. If they were run buy the government, it would favor the poor because they would have to play less tuitions. The Ministry of Education mainly looks at the development of post-primary education, secondary school, high school, and college. In rural areas in Bangladesh, females often do not attend school for too...
...INDIA'S GROWTH THROUGH ADVANCEMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR
*Research scholar,sri Venkateshwara university,gajraula
**Supervisor, Maharaja agarsen college,Delhi university.
Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Presenteducation system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up. At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The present research focus on steps through which our indian education system had gone through. The basic moto of this research is to show that india has done serious efforts in education nd has shotremendous development but it is still lacking in comparison with developed nations. This study is an effort to suggest some measures for its improvement.
Education in every sense is one of...
2) A critical review of competencies, skills, theories and approaches
3) Bureaucratic Views
4) Theory X and Theory Y
5) The Systems Theory
6) The Contingency Theory
7) Role Theory
8) Paradigm 1: Christian scientific education management
9) Paradigm 2: Education management
10) Paradigm 3: Educationgovernance and management
11) Collegiality Theory
12) What should Effective Educational Management look like in schools?
14) Reference Page
Schools in South Africa are a unique kind of organisation, with clearly defined goals and policies. Schools function through a hierarchical structure of authority whereby every aspect of the school needs to function accordingly. Schools are also, a dynamic and ever- changing system continually responding to influences both externally and internally. In order for schools to render an effective service of education certain structures need to be in place, and effective undertakings of various management functions need to be prioritised (Naidu, 2008:74). ‘Educational organisations, are human endeavours’ (Owens and Valensky, 2011: 84), and to deal with them effectively is to deal with human social systems. Management effectiveness in schools relates to competencies, skills and approaches. However, school management teams interventions which are aimed at improving their...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...