CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN EDUCATION IN COLONIAL KENYA UPTO 1920
Christian missionaries played a vital role in the introduction and development of Western education in Kenya. These missionaries began their activities here in the second half of the 19th Century. Although their main aim in coming to Africa was to Christianize a ‘dark and savage’ continent, the provision of rudimentary education was found inevitable. Missionaries had found out that, by having the ability to read the Bible and the hymn book, the early convert would be a valuable asset in getting more of one’s neighbours to Christianity. It would then appear, the role of Christian missionaries in providing western education to Africans was not by design but accidental. Should this assumption be correct, the entire phenomenon of western education as introduced and provided by Christian missionaries was flawed. In that case, they were to offer an improper education for as long as they were in control all by themselves.
From 1895 Kenya became a colonial enclave of Britain up to 1920. Kenya was referred to as the East Africa Protectorate. The construction of a railway line from Mombasa in 1895 to Kisumu in 1901 was a boom for both missionary and colonial government activities. Missionaries were able to spread out faster by opening more centres in the interior. On the other hand, the colonial administration was able to pacify resistant African groups. Regrettably for indigenous people too, the railway line also saw the in-flaw of European settlers and Asian groups. These aliens were to change the development of events to the disadvantage of Kenyan locals.
Missionary spread out
Inspired by the desire to embrace as many adherents as they could, Protestant and Roman Catholic missionaries moved to almost all accessible and habitable regions in Kenya. The Church Missionary Society (CMS) led in this ambitious crusade. From 1844 John Ludwig Krapf of CMS began to explore the East African Coast and was joined in 1846 by Johan Rebman. They established their first mission station at RabaiMpya, among the Rabai people, near Mombasa. Later the CMS operated a station in Taita in 1895. Other CMS centres were started in the following places: Kahuruko (1901); Weithaga (1903); Kahuhia (1906); Mahiga (1908); Embu (1910) etc. A branch of the CMS also entered Western Kenya from Uganda and in 1903 had set up a mission station at Maseno. Holy Ghost Fathers set in at Mombasa in 1890 and a year later was also stationed at Bura. They got themselves a station in Nairobi in 1899. Their counterparts, the Consolata Fathers opened stations at Kiambu (1902), Limuru (1903) and Mang’u (1906). Roman Catholics also entered Kenya from Uganda and soon established centres at Kisumu (1903) and later at Mumias and Kakamega.
Other missionary groups that were pivotal in the spread to various parts of the country were: Evangelical Lutheran Mission of Leipzig (from Germany); African Inland Mission; church of Scotland; Friends African Mission (Quakers); Church of God Mission, the Nilotic Independent Mission, the Seventh Day Adventists and the Presbyterian Church of East Africa.
Although with other unbecoming consequences for indigenous people the multiplicity of Christian church denominations stirred a rivalry that became a catalyst in the spread of churches and schools. Every other group scrambled for a sphere of influence. On the whole, by 1920 Christian missionary groups had ‘stuck out their necks’ as important players in the spread of western influences among indigenous people. By 1918, there were 16 missionary bodies active in the country. Roman Catholics and CMS had the largest proportion of schools for Africans. Between them, they controlled 46 station schools and 261 village schools.
Basically, the purpose behind the establishment of mission stations and schools was to spread Christianity. The...
FOUNDATIONS IN EDUCTION
Discuss how each of the foundation areas provide needed insights for librarians in their efforts to create and sustain a learning community in schools.
According to Speck (1999) in Schools as Professional Learning Communities (2008) “a school learning community is one that promotes and values learning as an ongoing, active collaboration process with dynamic dialogue by teachers, students, staff, principal, parents and the school community to improve the quality of learning and life within the school” (pg 7). All the members of the learning community are responsible for building the community to encourage and enhance learning in the school as a whole. The learning community inspires the personal growth and development of all its members. The learning community should be centered in the classroom but also extend to the wider school and into the community where all members are engaged in similar activities. The aim of the learning community is for all members to become actively involved so that the students are motivated to learn, develop better, think creatively and have originality in thought.
Foundation areas are core areas in the growth and development of a school librarian, which allows the new role of the teacher librarian to develop a learning community to motivate students to learn. The main goal of the foundation areas are to develop creative, critical and original...
Isaac Asimov's Foundation - Validity of Science Fiction
Submitted By: Supervised To:
Palak Madan Dr Smita Mishra
Amity Institute of English Studies and Research
AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH
Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, parallel universes, extraterrestrial life, or paranormal abilities. Exploring the consequences of scientific innovations is one purpose of science fiction, making it a ‘literature of ideas’.
Science fiction is largely based on writing rationally about alternative possible worlds or futures. It is similar to, but differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in a story might still be pure imaginative speculation). It is often said that Science Fiction is the literature of change. When a culture is undergoing a lot of changes due to scientific advances and technological developments, and expects to undergo more, it's hardly surprising if stories about these changes become popular as a way of expressing people's feelings (optimistic or otherwise) about change.
Isaac Asimov’s Foundation and the...
...Turgot on Problems and Solutions Regarding “Foundations”
Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot was a perfect example of the “enlightened Administrator” who wished to reform the government, not overthrow it, and was even employed by King Louis XIV as “Controller General”. His ideas in the article, On Foundations, while radical, and critical of the Old Regime, mainly focus on the ideas of local government, taxation, humanism, and citizenship. In the article, Turgot criticizes the Old Regime practice of employing “foundations” or corporate charities, as a main source of financial aid to the community and proposes alternatives to the practice that focus on individual responsibility and volunteerism.
According to Turgot, foundations are private charities that are often created and continued for the wrong reasons. He believes that most of the time, it is a founder’s (whether it be a man, church, or corporation) vanity that leads to creating a foundation, rather that truly caring about what society needs or would benefit the most from. Turgot states that founders are drawn to the idea of the prestige of creating a new charity or are interested in the “glamour” of supporting a new cause or project. Similarly, he believes that even if the main reason for creating the foundation was not based upon the originator's vanity, the charities are attached to certain ideal, such as Christianity, and are partly...
...The Elements of Science Fiction in Asimov's Foundation
The Elements of Science Fiction in Asimov's Foundation
[This essay explores those characteristics of the novel Foundation, which are peculiar to the genre of Science Fiction.]
The most fundamental and obvious element of Science Fiction is its dependence on imagined technological advancements. The SF writer exploits the gap between scientific theory and practice to create a world, or at least circumstances, very different from our own reality and yet very believable because of the scientific logic' behind it all. The SF writer must provide some kind of scientific explanation as to how the fantastic things that are being talked about have been made possible. Asimov, in his novel Foundation, introduces hyper-spatial travel based on the concept of hyper-space, to make the existence of the Galactic Empire possible. Nuclear power supplies the energy requirements and the use of coal and oil, as Salvor Hardin says in the novel, is considered barbaric'. Trantor, the capital of this futuristic Empire has gone a step further to make use of the temperature difference between the ground level and a couple of miles under' to supply all the energy required. The glorious' picture is completed in the first few pages with Gaal Dornick following a light beam for a guide and taking a taxi which rises straight up into the air.
Because of this creation of a new,...
Foundation is the first novel in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy (later expanded into The Foundation Series). Foundation is a collection of five short stories, which were first published together as a book by Gnome Press in 1951 which, together, form a single plot.
Foundation saw multiple publications—it also appeared in 1955 as part of Ace Double D-110 under the title "The 1,000-Year Plan". Four of the stories were originally published inAstounding Magazine (with different titles) between 1942 and 1944, and the fifth was added when they first appeared in book form. A further two books of short stories were published shortly after, and decades later, Asimov wrote two further sequel novels and two prequels. Later writers have added authorized tales to the series. The Foundation Series is often regarded as one of Isaac Asimov's best works, along with his Robot series.
Foundation tells the story of a group of scientists who seek to preserve knowledge as the civilizations around them begin to regress.
(0 F.E.) (First published as the book edition in 1951)
Set in the year 0 F.E., The Psychohistorians opens on Trantor, the capital of the 12,000-year-old Galactic Empire. Though the empire appears stable and powerful, it is slowly decaying in ways that parallel the decline of the Western Roman Empire. Hari...
...Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply through autodidacticism. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.
Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems were also based on people's religion giving them different curricula.
Main articles: Curriculum, Curriculum theory, and List of academic disciplines
School children in Durban, South Africa.
In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard.
An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing...
...the student if for sure going to trust the teacher making it easier for the student to pay attention. A great teacher is also a life long learner.
A life long learner is always involved in the community. Whether it be helping with a charity event or helping pick up trash on a highway, this person is always willing to help and play a big role in his community. Being involved in the community is a great way to learn. The teacher will also get his students involved in the community. This is an exciting way to learn. A life long learner also uses technology to grow their mind. Technology can teach us more than we ever could imagine. This person realizes this and uses technology to keep their mind sharp even when they are done with their education. The more the teacher learns about technology the more he can use it in the classroom, creating an exciting environment! A life long learner also models good deeds. This person is a great example to everyone he meets. He tries to always do the right thing. This person would be on time to his meeting, he would use nice language, he would dress appropriately, etc. He is one many people look up to and is respected by all. The educator would also encourage and teach his students to do the same. Finally a life long learner invites others to learn by being a good example. This person shows others how exciting learning can really be. This person would not just visit a museum on the weekend, but he would invite his students to...
...WILTECH CONSULT, LIMITED…………………………………CHAPTER TWO.
2.1 Company’s Organogram.
2.2 Area of Operation (Scope of service).
2.3 Working Methods.
2.4 Past Projects handled by Wiltech Consult.
3.0 WORK EXPERIENCE GAINED AT WILTECH CONSULT, LIMITED…………………………………………………………CHAPTER THREE.
3.1 Office Experience.
3.1.1 Computer Aided Design (CAD).
3.1.1 Some Benefits/ Advantages of CAD.
3.1.2 Office Exploits.
3.2 Site Experience.
3.2.1 Blinding of Pad foundation.
3.2.2 Layering of foundation walls and Reinforcement bars for pad foundation.
3.2.3 Casting of Staircase.
3.2.4 Construction of Stanchion base foundation.
3.2.5 Construction of cantilevered stanchion base foundation.
3.2.6 Construction of stanchion base foundation linked with ground beams.
3.2.7 Welding(construction of portal frame).
3.2.8 Materials Used on site.
3.2.9 Equipments and tools Used on site.
4.0 PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATION…………………CHAPTER FOUR.
5.0 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………CHAPTER FIVE.
TABLE OF FIGURES/PLATES.
Figure 1: organization...