CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION WORKING PAPER 2 | JUNE 2010
ASSESSING THE LINKS BETWEEN EDUCATION AND MILITANCY IN PAKISTAN Rebecca Winthrop Corinne Graff
Rebecca Winthrop is a Fellow and Co-Director of the Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Corinne Graff is a Fellow in the Center for Universal Education at Brookings.
Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Kate Anderson Simons, Mohammad Mohsin Ali and Erum Haider, who provided excellent research assistance, for their tireless efforts. Special thanks also go to: Anda Adams, Cyril Almeida, Munir Akram, Javed Hasan Aly, Tahir Andrabi, Mehnaz Aziz, Masooda Bano, Josh Busby, Jason Campbell, Gerald Chauvet, Jishnu Das, David Gartner, Sally Gear, Edward Gonzalez, Randy Hattﬁeld, Ward Heneveld, Susan Hirshberg, Khadim Hussain, Bruce Jones, Riaz Mohammad Khan, Parag Khanna, Hamida Khuhro, Molly Kinder, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, Mitch Kirby, Maleeha Lodhi, Tanvi Madan, Sabiha Mansoor, LeAnna Marr, Chris Pagen, Malcolm Phelps, Bruce Riedel, Jacob Shapiro, Mao-Lin Shen, Marshall Smith, Savannah ThomasArrigo, Jacques van der Gaag and Waleed Ziad. We are also grateful for the discussions with other colleagues at the United States Agency for International Development and the Embassy of the United States in Islamabad, Pakistan.
...“When right of education is denounced”
Education is a universal, fundamental human right, recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and reaffirmed in international human rights conventions. In this era of technology, advancement and globalization, education is the key to success and peace. Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. But the worst condition of education inPakistan reflects the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector. Though 62 years have passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an effective educational reforms. With respect to Human Development Index, Pakistan has been placed by UNDP at 136th position, lower than some of its regional neighbors like Sri Lanka, Maldives, India and Myanmar mainly due to its low literacy rate and low primary level enrolment. In different reports the Ministry of Education claimed that literacy in Pakistan is over 50%, but open sources disagree with it and they say that it is merely 35%. Ratio of budget indicates the level of importance given by a nation to the education. Historically, Pakistan has been spending less on education, as compared to other countries in the region. Pakistan spends less than 2% of its GDP on education...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
Subject: SOCL 325 (gender)
Crisis of women’s education in Pakistan
Education is the most important and fundamental factor for any country. Inequality in education of men and women is highly immoral. Pakistan is facing major illiteracy issue. The main issue in the crisis is due to more preference to male than female. The girls’ education in the country is lagging behind with barriers for them to come to school regularly to complete the full cycle of primary education. Clearly women have not been able to exercise fully their right to an education.
Gender issues in Pakistan is highly challenging, in particular because of the strong hold of Cultural conservatism experienced in some areas such as North West Frontier Province, which by and large determines social norms, values and principles. Inequalities are highly insidious in Pakistan, as is clearly reflected in educational requirements for its people. Rich go to private schools and the poor go to public schools creating a big difference in the education sector. Poverty is widespread especially in rural Pakistan.
Actually the biggest paradox in Pakistan is the absence of a legal guarantee of free and compulsory primary education, which indeed is a highly critical aspect for the...
...a uniform education system for all is an exercise in futility. It can never happen. So resources should not be wasted on attempting to achieve the impossible.”
Poverty, terrorism and social and economic insecurity are a few of the numerous problems this country faces, the roots of all of which lie in a more basic issue: illiteracy. To solve the complex, ever-growing problem of illiteracy in Pakistan, numerous measures, including the prospect of a uniformeducation system, have been suggested. Although the idea of a uniform education system to tackle these problems shows promise because of the sense of unity and equality that it will give the nation and a more balanced educational curriculum it is expected to offer, the high costs relating to the project, the problems of centrally governing a one tier education system and the long period of time that it will take to properly implement the idea nationwide make it an exercise in futility.
Broadly speaking there are 3 secondary education systems that exist in Pakistan: the SSC, HSC education system locally termed as the Metric/Intermediate system administered by the Board of Secondary and Intermediate Education (BISE); the GCE (General Certificate of Education) system that replaces the SSC/HSC with O and A levels, administered by external British Examination Board of Cambridge; and...
...EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN: A SURVEY
Every year the government of Pakistan publishes some report or the other about education. If not specifically about education, at least the Economic Survey of Pakistan, carries a chapter on education. These reports confess that the literacy rate is low, the rate of participation in education at all levels is low and the country is spending too little in this area. Then there one brave promises about the future such as the achievement of hundred percent literacy and increasing the spending on education which has been hovering around 2 percent of the GNP since 1995 to at least 4 percent and so on. Not much is done, though increases in the number of schools, universities and religious seminaries (madrassas) is recorded. The private sector mints millions of rupees and thousands of graduates throng the market not getting the jobs they aspired to. The field of education is a graveyard of these aspirations. The following indicators point grimly to where Pakistan stands in South Asia.
THE HISTORICAL LEGACY
South Asia is heir to a very ancient tradition of both formal and informal learning. These traditions varied from region to region and, more importantly, between different socio-economic classes. The very poorest people generally got no education at all...
...SS 100 Writing and Communication
17 November 2011
Is There a Place For Sex Education in Pakistani Educational Institutions?
The world is evolving continuously and so is our society. A few decades back people would not even think about talking about sex in public in our society. It was assumed by the adults that as their children grow up they will learn about it themselves some way or the other but now due to the availability of the internet and media attention given to it most people in urban areas have started giving sex education to their children. In western cultures sex education has become a part of the curriculum for quite some time now but due to restrictions imposed on eastern societies regarding sex it is very uncommon in the subcontinent especially in Pakistan. However some premier institutions have started to implement it as they see its advantages. Although some people feel that sex education in schools will lead to increased sexual activity among teenagers, nevertheless, its benefits exceed its disadvantages especially for young women in both rural and urban areas of Pakistan, because this will help them to deal with issues regarding Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), safe sex practices, family planning and infertility.
Some people believe that sex education will lead to increased sexual activity among teenagers. These people do have a valid point but...
...Taha Fahim Pasha
Nabiha Meher Shaikh
26th April 2011
Persuasive Essay: Sex Education In Pakistan
Sex education, a widely recognized term in our society has a misinterpreted meaning. It does not only stand for education regarding sexual intercourse, but is broad in the sense that it involves everything related to sex including sexual anatomy, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Although sex education encompasses all this, currently only limited aspects of this broad subject are being taught in schools, the media and other organizations. However, this situation needs to change. The promotion of sex education is most dire in our nation, as it will be extremely advantageous for our people in several aspects. Although it is said that sexual education directly induces sexual arousal and ultimately sexual activity, sexual education needs to be effectively implemented in Pakistan since it is an extremely effective means of controlling the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, is instrumental in ending the woes of teenagers confused about their bodies during puberty, and greatly equips children in protecting themselves from sexual predators and pedophiles.
Sexual education is an effective means of controlling...
...Coeducation is to educate both boys and girls together.in the modern world of today,coeducation is the new order of the day.most of the countries in the world have adopted this form of education. in Pakistan too, there are some schools where there is coeducation whereas, in many institutes there is sex-segregation.
coeducation finds its origin in Sparta,Greece.at that time,there was no distinction between boys and girls.they studied and played together.they were given academic education along with physical training.Plato,the great philosopher theorized that coeducation was essential for the development of personality.he believed that coeducation was the only way to make boys and girls beneficial to the society.therefore,west has acknowledged and adopted the benefits of coeducation since long ago.
In the subcontinent, during ancient times,coeducation was present at a few places.but,gradually girls education begin to be ignored.the educational system of that time was quite different from that of today.boys were sent to gurukuls where they spent most of their educational period.they were imparted physical and academic education.the former included warfare training while,the latter comprised of study of scriptures.in medieval india, women and people belonging to lower caste were forbidden from reading the scriptures. However,raja ramohan roy,the great social reformer revolted against this practice.his succesors also...