Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit
Education and Inequality: The South African Case
by Nicola Branson, Julia Garlick, David Lam and Murray Leibbrandt
Working Paper Series Number 75
About the Author(s) and Acknowledgments Nicola Branson is a senior researcher at the Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit (SALDRU). Julia Garlick is a graduate student in Economics at Yale University. David Lam is Professor of Economics and Research Professor in the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. Murray Leibbrandt is a Professor of Economics and Director of SALDRU at the University of Cape Town. Support for this research was provided by the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Devel opment (Grants R01HD39788 and R01HD045581), the Fogarty International Center of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (D43TW000657), the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the Centre for Development Enterprise. Murray Leibbrandt acknowledges the Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation for funding his work as the Research Chair in Poverty and Inequality.
Recommended citation Branson, N., Garlick, J., Lam, D., Leibbrandt, M. (2012). Education and Inequality: The South African Case. A Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit Working Paper Number 75. Cape Town: SALDRU, University of Cape Town
Orders may be directed to: The Administrative Officer, SALDRU, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7701, Tel: (021) 650 5696, Fax: (021) 650 5697, Email: [email protected]
Education and Inequality: The South African Case
Nicola Branson, Julia Garlick, David Lam and Murray Leibbrandt SALDRU Working Paper Number 75 University of Cape Town April 2012
Following the international literature, income inequality decompositions on data from contemporary South Africa show that the labour market is the key driver of overall household inequality. In order to understand one of the channels driving this labour market inequality, we use national household survey data to review changing returns to education in the South African labour market over the last 15 years; with a focus on both the returns to getting employment as well as the earnings returns for those that have employment. We show that South Africa has experienced a skills twist with the returns to matric and postsecondary education rising and the returns to levels of education below this remaining constant. Then, based on a regression based decomposition of earnings inequality, we show how this has impacted earnings inequality. Indeed, the increase in returns to post-secondary education has directly counteracted the equalising gains that have been made by increased educational attainment, resulting in consistent levels of inequality over time.
The need to invest in human capital has been recognised in development economics for a long time. While other fashions have come and gone the case for such investment has grown stronger over time. Increased globalization and the consequent changing international demand for labour patterns have strengthened this case in general but have changed it too. A dominant outcome of these patterns is that they have increased inequality within developing economies and a focus on inequality is an interesting and useful prism through which to view the contemporary case for investment in human capital in general and in South Africa specifically. Human capital typically includes both skills and health. These two aspects often have different causes and consequences, and both have extensive literature devoted to them. This paper will...
1 SECTION B: INTRODUCTION TO SOUTHAFRICANEDUCATION LAW…………………………..….3 2 EXAMINATION PAPER:
SECTION B: INTRODUCTION TO SOUTHAFRICANEDUCATION LAW
3 MEMORANDUM OF ACTIVITIES INCLUDED IN THE STUDY GUIDE…………………..…………......8 4 A FINAL WORD……………………………………………………….……..………………………………..18
1. SECTION B: INTRODUCTION TO SOUTHAFRICANEDUCATION LAW
Dear Student Please note that this tutorial letter relates to the only
The purpose of this tutorial letter is to provide feedback on assignments 01, question 2,
Section B: Introduction to SouthAfricanEducation Law
to demarcate the field of study for the examination and to provide the format of the exam paper for
Section B: Introduction to SouthAfricanEducation Law
memorandum of activities included in your study guide Section B: Introduction to SouthAfricanEducation Law is also included.
1.1 FEEDBACK ON ASSIGNMENT 01,
Analyse the scenario and explain under what circumstances either Team Rebone’s coach or JD Smit Secondary School can be liable for the accident by applying five (5) elements of delictual liability.
...Educational Inequality: The Product of Poverty and Inherent Discrimination
Educational Inequality exists for students of all backgrounds in the U.S. but this inequality is extremely pronounced in minorities. It is no secret that the whiter, richer, more educated individuals in this country have generally had greater access to more stable learning environments, more knowledgeable, academically concerned parents, and better educational resources. However, In the Post Brown Vs. Board of Education world, inequality still persists at high levels for people of color and poverty. Despite the abolition of obvious forms of discrimination, students of lower socioeconomic status continue to receive worse educations and attain lower levels of schooling as they continue the harsh cycle of poverty experienced by most low-income families. Inequality in the U.S. education system is due to numerous factors such as the U.S’ unique history of racial discrimination and uneven allocation of resources; however, increasing income disparity between the upper and lower classes, varying degree of parental involvement, and the cyclical nature of poverty are the largest and most important components of educational inequality. This paper analyzes the aforementioned variables and contextualizes them into a continuous cycle of educational discrimination and shortcoming...
...INEQUALITY IN EDUCATION
Table of Contents
Analysis of Education
B. Functionalists Perspective and Education
C. Conflict Perspective and Education
D. Symbolic-Interactonist Perspective and Education
“Three quarters of the students at the most elite private colleges come from upper middle-class or wealthy families. Only five percent come from families with household incomes under $35,000. Half a century after Brown v. Board of Education, poor children of color – and regardless of color -- are routinely, and increasingly, assigned to schools filled with other poor children—a practice with a long, proven record of failure. The college enrollment gap between low- and high-income Americans is widening, even as the economic value of a college degree continues to increase”(Meyers). See table below.
The goal of education is to make sure that every student has a chance to excel, both in school and in life. Increasingly, children's success in school determines their success as adults, determining whether and where they go to college, what professions that they enter, and how much they are paid. Why is that getting a good education is dependent upon a person’s socioeconomic status? Education is a right in...
...“Social inequality is a more pressing socio-economic challenge than poverty in contemporary South Africa.” South Africa is one of the most unequal countries in the world, but not the poorest (with reference to income). We can see that the inequality in South Africa has worsened over time by looking at the country’s Gini Index score. In 1996 the score was 0.66 and in 2008, 0.70. The score has also deteriorated in terms of population groups: the score went from 0.54 to 0.62 between Blacks and from 0.43 to 0.50 between Whites (The World Bank, 2012). Countries such as Japan and Denmark have index scores around 0.25. The difference is quite visible.
This essay will define poverty and inequality, discuss the measures and consequences of poverty and inequality, and discuss why inequality is a more pressing socio-economic challenge than poverty.
Poverty can be defined as the failure to achieve certain basic capabilities and the inability to live a valued life. Basic capabilities include life, health, education, emotion and affiliation (Nussbaum, 1990:143). However, in the context of South Africa, no official definition has been adopted. It is important to note that income is not the best measure for social relations.
Social inequality is known as the biggest socio-economic issue in South Africa. According to the...
...The sociological study of education looks at the way different social institutions affect the process of education and how this impacts on students. Education is widely perceived to be a positive social institution where individuals can acquire knowledge and learn new skills. However, some would argue that this is not the case and that education produces an unequal society and is a negative institution where individuals are socialised to accept such inequality. This essay will explore the inequalities in education to establish how they occur. By examining Marxist, Functionalist and Interactionist perspectives, explanations for such inequalities can be understood.
Historically, in Britain formal schooling was a preserve of higher social classes. Education was largely provided by private institutions, such as churches form the middle ages onwards, with an aim to provide the bureaucratic elite with a means to run government. The state first assumed full responsibility for education in 1870, with the Foster's Education Act. In 1880, school attendance was made compulsory up to the age of 10, ensuring basic primary education for all. (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004) The state took responsibility for secondary education with the Fisher Education Act of 1918 and attendance...
What to do after school
Many young southAfricans face the problem of deciding what to study after school. Tertiary education is a higher form of education that furthers a learners knowledge of a particular field. Tertiary education is also referred to as third stage, third level, higher education and post-secondary education, it is the educational level following the completion of a school education (after grade 12). tertiary education includes universities, technikons, internships and institutions that specify in skills such as FET colleges. There are also other higher education facilities such as nursing schools
There are 4 main options for higher education in South Africa
the dictionary defines university as a high-level educational institution in which students study for degrees and academic research is done. There are many universities in south Africa, but they are often hard to be accepted into. They require students who are prepared to study long hours and and make sacrifices in return for a degree which takes a minimum of 4 years to complete
Universities are mostly revloved around theory and do not include much practical work. Universities only accept students after grade 12.
Benifites of university:
Degrees are required for a wide range of careers such as...
...THE BRITISH ADAPTATION OF EDUCATION POLICY
FOR AFRICANS IN ZAMBIA 1925-1964
A PROBLEM IN SYNTHESIS
Sibeso Mukoboto, B.A.
A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the
Graduate School, Marquette University, in
Partial Fulfillment of the Re- '
quirements for the Degree
of Master of Arts
The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze how the British policy of "Adaptation of Education" waS defined and applied to the
Zambian situation in the period 1925 to 1964.
In analyzing this period,
the main focus is on the inability of this policy to bring about a
proper synthesis between theory on paper and actual practice, and the
problem of bringing about a proper synthesis between British and
Zambian indigenous systems of education.
I would like to acknowledge the assistance and cooperation I have
received from my Thesis Director, Dr. Wasyl Shimoniak, and members of
the Thesis Committee, Drs. Adrian Dupuis and David Gardinier.
Further appreciation is extended to Dr. A. Tiberondwa and E. B.
Rugumayo of the University of Zambia for stimulating my interest in
this subj ect.
I would also like to thank my mother, father, and uncle Lisulo for
their continued support in my academic career.
My thanks also go to the
following members of my family who encouraged me to come and do my
graduate studies at Marquette all the way from Zambia: Mwangalang'omba, Matauka, Wamusheke,...
11th March 2015
Word Count- 1470
Gender Inequality in Education
Gender Inequality is the unjust behaviour or insights of people on the basis of gender. In regards to education, we can then say, gender inequality in education is the discrimination of individuals based on gender in schools. When talking about this gender inequality it is quite obvious that the ones being discriminated are the females.
Education is a fundamental right, which should not be restricted to a certain gender, every human being, male or female has a right to education. No matter the form of inequality it is bad for an economy and well-being. The impact is more severe if when it is viewed from the perspective of gender and even more detrimental when the resources allocated are unfair against women. A society that its hierarchal organisation have a habit of placing men in choice making positions and women demoted to economic work that seeks limited work and does not give them the satisfactory resources of means of support is a society that is put in danger. (Ijaiya & I.O.Balogun)
This issue of gender inequality in education is far more prominent in less developed countries, plus Nigeria where quite a number of readings have shown that under the backings of religion and tradition the men discriminate against women...