Taxpayers’ Costs to Support Higher Education: A Comparison of Public, Private Not-for-Profit, And Private For-Profit Institutions
Robert J. Shapiro and Nam D. Pham
Taxpayers’ Costs to Support Higher Education: A Comparison of Public, Private Not-for-Profit, and Private For-Profit Institutions1 Robert J. Shapiro and Nam D. Pham
Introduction and Summary of Findings
The role of private for-profit institutions of higher education has expanded greatly in recent years. Demand for post-secondary education is up, especially for the career-focused curricula of most private for-profit colleges, universities and institutes. Further, the spread of Internet technologies creates new and highly-efficient channels for online learning, which private for-profit institutions have adopted more quickly than public and private not-for-profit colleges and universities. In addition, recent federal regulation of higher education tied to access to G.I. Bill and other federal student assistance has induced many private for-profit institutions to raise their standards and accreditation levels. The rapid expansion of these schools, however, also has raised questions about fast-rising expenditures for federal grants and loans to students attending for-profit institutions. This analysis examines all forms of federal, state and local government support across the three classes of higher education institutions – public, private not-for-profit, and the private forprofit institutions – and the three categories of four-year, two-year and less-than-two-year institutions. This analysis shows that concerns about disproportionate assistance to private forprofit colleges, universities and institutes are misplaced. Private for-profit institutions and their students receive less than 30 percent of the support per-student from all levels of government provided to public institutions and their students, and less than 48 percent of the support per-student received by private not-for-profit institutions and their students.
In particular, government provides private for-profit institutions little direct support through government grants, appropriations and contracts to the institutions. On a per-student basis, For every $1 in direct government support for private for-profit institutions, perstudent, at federal, state and local levels, private not-for-profit institutions receive $8.69 per-student and public institutions receive $19.38 per-student.
The rising demand for higher education reflects the economic value of that education, especially those who graduate. About 55 percent of American adults have attended some institution of higher education, and 38 percent have earned degrees. In 2007, those who held an associate’s degree, on average, earned 27 percent more than those with only a high school education; and those with bachelor’s degrees earned on average 83 percent more than those with The authors want to acknowledge the able research assistance by Jiwon Vellucci and Krista Ellis, and support for this research provided by Kaplan, Inc. The analysis and views are solely those of the authors. 1
no post-secondary education. These differences were greatest for minorities and those from lowincome families. As a result, the number of students attending post-secondary institutions grew 35 percent in recent years, from 14.3 million in 1995 to 19.6 million in 2008. Moreover, over the same period, attendance at private for-profit institutions expanded 750 percent, from 240,000 to 1.8 million students. The three classes of institutions serve distinct if overlapping demands and aspirations: More than 98 percent of those attending private not-for-profit institutions are enrolled in fouryear programs, compared to 52 percent of those attending public institutions and 65 percent of those attending private for-profit institutions. Further, 47.5 percent of those...
...INDIA'S GROWTH THROUGH ADVANCEMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR
*Research scholar,sri Venkateshwara university,gajraula
**Supervisor, Maharaja agarsen college,Delhi university.
Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Presenteducation system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up. At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The present research focus on steps through which our indian education system had gone through. The basic moto of this research is to show that india has done serious efforts in education nd has shotremendous development but it is still lacking in comparison with developed nations. This study is an effort to suggest some measures for its improvement.
Education in every sense is one of...
...Arts in Education
Topic: Education System of Thailand
Discussant: Oliver A. Lahorra
Professor: Dr. Philip Baldera
Subject: Comparative Models of Education
Education System of Thailand
The Kingdom of Thailand
Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country located at the center of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Capital: Bangkok Currency: Thai baht
King: Bhumibol Adulyadej Population: 66.79 million (2012) Government: Unitary state, Constitutional monarchy, Parliamentary system
Thai Education System
The education system of Thailand is composed of three (3) types:
1] Formal Education
2] Non-Formal Education
3] Informal Education
Thai Education Ladder
Formal education services are divided into [a] Early Year Education, [b] Basic Education, Vocational and [c] Technical Education and Higher Education.
1] Early Year Education
Aged 3 to 5 receive early year education.
2] Basic Education
Basic education in Thailand is divided into 6 years of primary schooling, (Prathom 1 to 6) followed by 3 years of lower...
...Tablet Computers in Education
Education Wing -DDE
Tablet Computers are quickly emerging as a powerful Learning tool in higher education.
The unique functionality of the Tablet Computer allows teachers to create lecture materials for their
classes using digital format that can be distributed to students for later review. A tablet enhanced
learning environment is an environment where single or multiple tablets are implemented to
enhance student learning. Though a universally agreed-upon definition is currently lacking, there is
some agreement that a tablet is a computer is a personal computer whose primary input device is
a screen or a convertible notebook computer whose screen can be used as an input device.
The Tablet Computer is the next innovative device to hit the educational technology sector.
Its design and handwriting functionality, challenges the way faculty and students integrate tablet
computers into their teaching and learning process. Tablets are becoming increasingly common
tools in schools. There's a wealth of options available, a range of web apps or apps designed for
different operating systems and so many choices for teachers and students to make that it is
sometimes useful to know the range of ways that they are making a difference across a range of
different subject areas....
History of Technology in Higher Education
September 7, 2012
History of Technology in Higher Education
We are living in the time of the information boom. Never before has information been so abundant and easy to find. To many students it seems like a hassle to search for information on a computer. Could you imagine finding all of your information by flipping pages of books, magazines, and news papers in a library? “Technology is treated as a tool to help accomplish a complex task rather than a subject of study for its own sake.
The Magic Lantern
The first technological tools use in the classroom was the Magic Lantern in 1870. The magic lantern projected images that were printed on glass plates. The first college to use the magic lantern Leipzig, Germany is became renowned as a center of magic lantern technology, including its use in science education (Smith, 2011). Oil lamps and candles served as light sources for the magic lantern. Leipzig had a special amphitheater called the Spectatorium. It seated up to 400 students and had several lanterns to display images from. The first professors to use magic lanterns in America were Hugo Münsterberg at Harvard and E.B. Titchener at Cornell (Smith, 2011). The magic lantern and the kymograph were the two most essential and cost-effective instruments. The lantern, was estimated, would be used 60 times in an academic year of 35 weeks, at 10 to 30 minutes per...
...Although we've come a long way in using IT tools to enhance education, at present we're hampered by our fragmented approach to incorporating them. In almost every institution you can find islands of innovation, but we have yet to integrate the pieces into a seamless enterprise. For example, some institutions excel in online student services by offering a 24/7 operation to students with great customer service, access, convenience, and a fast response time. Yet the same institutions might still rely on a traditional classroom model when it comes to teaching and learning. Such internal variations parallel those existing between institutions; for example, other institutions might be wildly successful in such areas as distributed learning, distance learning, and partnerships with e-learning companies. Administrative systems vary as well. We see some institutions with fully implemented ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) solutions, while others are still processing financial aid by hand.
Despite the fragmentation, institutions continue to find ways of using IT to help them better manage the "business" of higher education. Institutions, particularly those in state systems, are facing a greater demand for accountability. In response to this expectation, a new generation of university presidents is looking to IT tools for help in operating from a data-driven basis.
So there are pockets of innovation and a lot of wonderful things happening, but at this...
11th March 2015
Word Count- 1470
Gender Inequality in Education
Gender Inequality is the unjust behaviour or insights of people on the basis of gender. In regards to education, we can then say, gender inequality in education is the discrimination of individuals based on gender in schools. When talking about this gender inequality it is quite obvious that the ones being discriminated are the females.
Education is a fundamental right, which should not be restricted to a certain gender, every human being, male or female has a right to education. No matter the form of inequality it is bad for an economy and well-being. The impact is more severe if when it is viewed from the perspective of gender and even more detrimental when the resources allocated are unfair against women. A society that its hierarchal organisation have a habit of placing men in choice making positions and women demoted to economic work that seeks limited work and does not give them the satisfactory resources of means of support is a society that is put in danger. (Ijaiya & I.O.Balogun)
This issue of gender inequality in education is far more prominent in less developed countries, plus Nigeria where quite a number of readings have shown that under the backings of religion and tradition the men discriminate against women hence divesting them access to skills and education for useful activities....
...COMMERCE EDUCATION AND EMPLOYABILITY
It is commonly agreed that education should aim at ‘holistic development’ of the individual. Further, such development should be in harmony with the society and the nature. To quote the great Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo, education should aim at “all round development of the personality, which includes education of the sense, body, mind, moral and spiritual education.”
The concepts of ‘all round development of personality’, or ‘holistic development’ include all the aspects of development-intellectual, spiritual, moral, economic, etc. However, some philosophers have defined the economic aims of education. Christopher Winch1; a British scholar says ‘education is broadly, although not exclusively concerned with preparation for life or for particular phase of life’. He gave three aspects to this concept of education, which are ‘fulfillment’, ‘civic participation’ and ‘vocation’ and specifies that the individual conception of education, as they can be found in particular societies at particular time, consists of distinct combination of these different aspects.
In order to define the objectives of commerce education, it may be important to go a little into its history. The origin of commerce education can be traced to the 19th century. It started with the teaching of skill based...
Viet Nam, a country with more than 80 million people, is a developing country which is in the process of transition from a centrally planned to a market economy and world economic integration. Besides common challenges facing developing countries, Viet Nam is facing with greater challenges, i.e. the need to accumulate for long-term development and industrialization and modernization in parallel with the need to urgently alleviate poverty and create social equality in differently developed sectors. Beside impacts of integration, modernization, hunger alleviation and poverty reduction, sustainable development requires special contribution of science and technology in order to preserve biodiversity and cultural diversity, conserve natural resources and prevent environment pollution.
Today, education is treated by governments and various stakeholders as an investment for future and is considered an effective tool for sustainable development. This common trend is also clearly reflected in Viet Nam and it shows both good and bad effects.
The good sides:
Firstly, follow the Marxist theory, Jerome Karabel in the book The Sociology of Education shows that “class interests behind a given pattern of education organization and seek to specify the social groups supporting the relation prevailing between school and other social institutions. To the extent,...