Introduction 1. The themes of the day for great organizations in the New Economy are Participation, Respect, Tradition, Involvement, Self-management Self-management, Involvement, Respect, Participation, Teamwork, Empowerment Involvement, Respect, Self-management, Teamwork, Shareholder value Respect, Involvement, Participation, Self-management, Control Self-management, Participation, Teamwork, Respect, Action Ans B Response Page 4 Difficulty Moderate AACSB Environmental InfluenceBlooms Taxonomy Comprehension Learning About Yourself 2. The Open Area of the Johari Window provides what is known to ourselves as well as what is known to others. Ans True Response Page 3 Difficulty Easy AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Knowledge 3. The Johari Window provides us with insights of what we know about ourselves and what is known by others about us but does not consider the unknowns about us. Ans False Response Page 3 Difficulty Moderate AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Comprehension 4. Self-Awareness helps us build on strengths helps overcome weaknesses helps us avoid tendencies toward self-enhancement is easy to talk about but hard to master All of the above Ans E Response Page 3 Difficulty Easy AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Knowledge 5. According to the Johari Window, the Blind Spot, The Unknown and Hidden Self Challenge our willingness and capacities for self-discovery Represent perceptions of ourselves Represent the perceptions others have of us Provide only what is known to others None of the above Ans A Response Page 3 Difficulty Moderate AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Comprehension Working Today 6.Explain why people, an organizations employees, are considered an invaluable asset. AnsPeople and their talents what they know, what they learn, and what they do with itare the ultimate foundations of organizational performance. They represent what managers call intellectual capital, the collective brainpower or shared knowledge of a workforce that can be used to create value. Indeed, the ultimate elegance of any organization is its ability to combine the talents of many people, sometimes thousands of them, to achieve unique and significant results. Response Page 4-5 Difficulty Easy Ref Working Today AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Analysis 7.Describe the various challenges managers must face in the 21st century workplace. To what extent are you, as a future manager, prepared to meet each of these challenges Explain your answer. AnsThe challenges that managers must face in the 21st century work environment include the following Intellectual capital ( intellectual capital and knowledge workers increasingly drive organizations since knowledge constantly becomes obsolete, everyone is under pressure to learn and continually apply new knowledge. Globalization ( economic competitiveness is a challenge of worldwide scope. Technology ( the availability and ease of transferring information is affecting organizational work environments and the very nature of business itself. Diversity ( organizations and their members are being challenged to deal positively with differences among people meeting this challenge creates strategic opportunity. Ethics ( modern society expects managers and leaders in all organizations to conduct their affairs according to high moral standards. Careers ( careers will be different and everyone must be concerned with developing their skill portfolios to remain valuable resources to organizations Each student should assess his/her own level of competency with respect to dealing with these challenges, as well as why he/she is/isnt prepared to meet these challenges. Response Page 5-9 Difficulty Moderate Ref Working Today AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy Synthesis 8.An employees talents are what they know, what they learn, and what they do with it. Ans True Response Page 4 Difficulty Moderate AACSB Individual DynamicsBlooms Taxonomy...
QoS Techniques: MPLS
CET 2486C – Network Technologies
November 27, 2012
MPLS or Multi Protocol Label Switching is a networking technology that functions between layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model. MPLS constitutes of adding a label (sometimes called “Shim” because of their placement between layer 3 and layer 2 headers.) to the data package, this label contains special addressing and sometimes prioritization information. Because the MPLS label contains all the information necessary for the router to forward the package to the next hop, the router does not have to spend time analyzing the entire package thus improving network latency or bottlenecks. Due to its multi protocol capabilities MPLS can be integrated with different networking technologies from ATM to native IP environments; in addition, this multi protocol capability also provides a way to converge different types of traffic such as data, voice and video onto one network. MPLS technology also provides some other advantageous features like Traffic Engineering (TE), VPN, Any Transport over MPLS (AToM) and Quality of Service (QoS). This paper will help provide an understanding of how MPLS works and the QoS capabilities it can provide.
History of MPLS
In 1996 a group from Ipsilon Networks introduced a “flow management protocol”, this technology only worked with ATM transmissions and did not become very popular in the market. Not long after Cisco...
...EconomicsEconomics is a social study that studies how society allocates its limited resources to satisfy its unlimited needs and wants. We are a capitalist consumer driven society and so businesses or producers are choosing things that will maximize their proﬁt. These things must have a demand from the consumer who chooses things to maximize their utility. Economics is known as a social science. Science: because of all of the scientiﬁc methods used (e.g. tables, graphs and hypothesis) and Social: because it is about people who are ever changing. Unlike physical and chemical science the nature of a social science makes the establishment of principles harder. Human beings are unpredictable – Iron has constant properties, people don’t. For example: The ‘Law of Demand’: the lower the price the higher the demand. Sometimes it doesn’t work this way as consumers equate low prices with poor products or poor service and therefore don’t buy it. With unlimited needs and wants and only limited resources we are forced to choose what will give us greater utility. Because the quality and/or quantity of resources is limited, our capacity to produce is restricted, as is our ability to satisfy the needs and wants of society. Is the satisfaction that someone gets from something (Factors of production) are productive inputs that are required by businesses to make goods or services. Are essential for the sustenance of life i.e. food, water,...
Test # 2
1. Production function- a function that specifies the output of a firm, an industry, or an entire economy for all combinations of inputs. This function is an assumed technological relationship, based on the current state of engineering knowledge
2. Rule of 70- Used to determine how many years it takes for a value to double, given a particular annual growth rate. For example, if you put $20,000 in the bank and it earns yearly interest of 7%, then it will take 10 years (70/7) for your income to double. 70/x = # years to double where x equals growth rate.
3. Spending multiplier and money multiplier- The money multiplier is the mathematical relationship between the monetary base and money supply of an economy. It explains the increase in the amount of cash in circulation generated by the banks' ability to lend money out of their depositors' funds.
4. Average tax rate and marginal tax rate (for individual income taxes)- average tax rate is a tax rate that is the percentage of the total tax base paid in taxes. Comparable to any average, this is the total taxes collected or paid divided by the total value of the tax base. Marginal tax rate is the rate on the last dollar of income earned
5. Aggregate demand-T he demands for all individual goods and services combined.
6. Moral hazard- It is the idea that individual can alter their behavior if they know they are insured against some outcomes.
...ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AFTER YOU WATCH IS AMERICA #1? FOR 45 POINTS
One or two sentence answers for each question
1. No because they are making the people that would advance their country leave and come to America to invent products here and advance America.
Does it help to limit how many hours a week people can work?
2. They wish to go to America.
To which country do most emigrants wish to go?
3. Everybody thinks that the opportunities here are only for the elite.
Why do some people in the U.S. disagree with the woman from Jamaica?
4. They don’t have the opportunities in their own country rather than the freedom and opportunity in America.
Why do immigrants often do better financially than native-born Americans?
5. No because the government regulates everything that happens and takes years to do so.
Can innovation occur without personal freedom?
6. It doesn’t even compare close because in America, they are living in pipes and shacks in majority of the country.
How does being poor in America compare with being
poor in the rest of the world?
7. They are easy to open businesses and have less regulations.
What do the countries with the most wealth have in
8. They have begun to increase profitably because they don’t have as many government regulations as before.
As a case study, what has happened to the economies
of Eastern European countries since regaining
their freedom from Soviet rule?
9. India is restricted by the...
... less factors of productions needed
■ unemployment increases, income reduces
● leakages < injections: income flow becomes larger
○ produces more, more factors of productions purphased
○ unemployment falls, income increases
Leakages: savings, taxes, imports
Injections: Investment, government spending, exports
When households save income → leakage ( banks, stocks and bonds)
Firms obtain funds (borrowing, issuing stocks and bond) to production of capital good.
Taxes (leakages) and government spending on health, defence, education (injections)
Imports and exports
open economy is when there is international trade through imports and exports
Imports = leakage
Exports = injections
8.3 (a) Explain the possible importance of using ‘green GDP’ as a measure of economic
activity. [10 marks]
GDP = C+I+G + ( XM)
consumption plus investment plus government spending plus net export
Real GDP eliminate the influence of changing prices on the value of output.
Capitals getting worn out is called depreciation.
gross investment = depreciation + net investment
Total investment = worn out capital goods + additions of new capital
Net domestic product = C + In + G + XM
Real GDP include the cleaning up of pollution making the nation seem better off
● Green GDP: GDP that accounts for the value of resource and environmental
● Green GDP = GDP − the value of environmental degradation
...W/J model 2 sector: to the right of Ye : Savings > Planned Investments
GDP= total market value of final g&p (not measured in monetary units bla bla bla..)
At Ye, if X = M, S + T = I + G,
Price is exogenous and constant
Investment Expenditure: Total exp on machinery etc and CHANGES in total invent/stock
Lower output decreases leakages
Monetary accomodation is used together with fiscal policy. It uses monetary policy to offset crowding out effect
C I G NX shifts IS curve, determined by Multiplier and size of change of autonomous exp
ke ↑ / I sensitive to i = IS & AD Flat
ke ↓ / I insensitive to i = IS & AD Steep
Multiplier of LM (k) measures sensitivity of Mt to Y. Large K = Sensitive
k ↓ or Ma inelastic = LM Flat
k ↑ or Ma elastic = LM Steep
Any changes to Md or Ms unrelated to i/Y will shift LM
Ms ↑ shifts LM to the right (e.g. RRR decreases, MAS prints money)
Md ↑ shifts LM to the left (e.g. Confidence in bonds increase) [Md = Ma + Mt]
Mt = k.Y | Ma = -f(i) --> R/i ↑ = Ma ↓ ---> Mt ↑ to restore Ms=Md
slope of LM depends on Ma & Mt (but more of Ma)
If Ma = 0, LM = vertical
Slope of Ma determined by substituability of cash/bonds
Slope of Mt determined by size of k
Mt = opposite of slope of LM e.g. Mt=-2, LM=2 (slope)
Slope of LM schedule depends on Mt and r/i responsiveness of Ma
R/i ↑ -> Y ↓
R/i responsiveness of IDC does not affect slope of LM
R/i responsiveness of IDC affects slope of IS
Steep LM = Monetary...
This work of HIS 204 New Ver Week 5 Final Paper comprises:
Thesis statement: Native American History
Economics - General Economics
Circular Flow Diagram . Explain how the circular flow diagram relates to the current economic situation. Using the circular flow diagram, explain a way that your family interacts in the factor market and a way that it interacts in the products market.
Supply and Demand . Analyze how the law of demand applies to a recent purchase that you made. Describe how the product has changed in price and explain whether the price change is due to supply or demand. Did the change in price affect your decision to purchase the item?
Elasticity . Analyze the determinants of the price elasticity of demand and determine if each of the following products are elastic or inelastic:
a. bottled water
c. cookie dough ice cream
d. fresh green beans
In your analysis, please make sure to explain your reasoning and relate your answers to the characteristics of the determinants of the price elasticity of demand.
Externalities . Explain the difference between a positive and negative externality. In your analysis, make sure to provide an example of each type of externality. Why does the government need to get involved with externalities to bring about market efficiency? What solutions need to be provided for your examples?
the branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth.
the social science that studies economic activity to gain an understanding of the processes that govern the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in an exchange economy.
SCARCITY: THE NEED TO CHOOSE
Scarcity is the fundamental economic problem of having seemingly unlimited human wants in a world of limited resources. It states that society has insufficient productive resources to fulfill all human wants and needs. A common misconception on scarcity is that an item has to be important for it to be scarce. However, this is not true, for something to be scarce, it has to be hard to obtain, hard to create, or both. Simply put, the production cost of something determines if it is scarce or not. For example, although air is more important to us than diamonds, it is cheaper simply because the production cost of air is zero. Diamonds on the other hand have a high production cost. They have to be found and processed, both which require a lot of money. Additionally, scarcity implies that not all of society's goals can be pursued at the same time;trade-offs are made of one good against others.
The basic economic problem that arises because people have unlimited wants but resources are limited. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources...