WORKING GROUP ON HIGHER EDUCATION
11TH FIVE YEAR PLAN
Government of India Planning Commission New Delhi
Report on Working Group on Higher Education - 11TH Five Year Plan Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION Chapter 2 : Thrust Areas Of Higher Education During 5th To 10th Five Year Plans Chapter 3 : Policy Perspective Chapter 4 : Public Expenditure On Higher Education: An Overview Chapter 5 : Financial Requirements for Higher Education in the Eleventh Plan, Based on Macro Targets and Estimates Chapter 6 : Status of Higher Education Institutional Capacity Chapter 7 : Progress In Enrolment Level –Aggregate Level Chapter 8 : Equity And Inclusive Education – Enrolment At Disagreement Level Chapter 9 : Status Of Quality And Excellence Chapter 10 : Making Higher Education Relevant Chapter 11: Use Of In Higher Education & Inter University Centres Chapter 12 : Research Chapter 13 : Open And Distance Learning System Chapter 14 : National Merit Scholarship Scheme
Chapter 15: Need for financial assistance to needy students for pursuing Higher Education. Chapter 16: Financial requirements.
CHAPTER –1 INTRODUCTION
A little more than half a century has passed since the Government initiated a planned development of higher education in the country with the establishment of University Grants Commission in 1953. The policy for the development of higher education has been mainly governed by the “National policy on Education” of 1986 (as modified in 1992) and its Program of Action 1992. The 1986 policy and Action Plan of 1992 were based on the two land mark reports namely, the “University Education Commission Report” of 1948-49 (popularly known as Radhakrishnan Commission), and the “Education Commission Report” of 1964-66, (popularly known as Kothari Commission ). These two reports, in fact, laid down the basic framework for the National Policy of 1986 for higher education in the country. The Radhakrishnan Commission on University Education had set up goals for development of higher education. While articulating these goals, the Commission put it in following words: “The most important and urgent reform needed in education is to transform it, to endeavour to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the people and thereby make it the powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation necessary for the realization of the national goals. For this purpose, education should be developed so as to increase productivity, achieve social and national integration, accelerate the process of modernization and cultivate social, moral and spiritual values.” The National Policy on Higher Education (1986 ) translated the vision of Radhakrishnan Commission and Kothari Commission in five main goals for higher education, as enumerated below; which include Greater Access, Equal Access (or Equity), Quality and Excellence, Relevance and Value Based Education. a) Greater Access requires an enhancement in the education institutional capacity to provide opportunities to all who deserve and desire higher education. b) Equity involves fair access to the poor and the socially disadvantaged groups. c) Quality and Excellence involve provision of education by accepted standard so that students receive available knowledge of the highest standard and help them to enhance their human resource capabilities.
d) Relevance involves promotion of education so as to develop human resources keeping pace with the changing economic, social and cultural development of the country; and e) Value Based Education involves inculcating basic moral values among the youth. The Action Plan of 1992 included schemes and programs which were directed towards expansion of intake capacity in general, and that of the disadvantaged groups such as the poor, SC, ST, minorities, girls, the physically challenged persons, and those in the educationally backward regions, in particular. Thw Schemes/Programmes were designed to improve the quality through...
The report on the changes in the British highereducation
Table of Contents
Table of Contents 1
1. Introduction 2
2. The British highereducation before 20th century 3
3.The changes in British highereducation after 20th Century 4
3.1 Changes in the highereducation system 4
3.2 Changes in government policy 5
3.3 Changes in purpose ofhighereducation 5
3.4 Changes in student 6
4.The impact of changes in British highereducation 8
5. Conclusion 8
The report on the changes in the British highereducation
The British highereducation experienced a development, changing a closed, elite university system into an open, mass post-secondary system (Scott, 1995, p.1). The university can be broadly classified in to four types: the ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge, the ‘redbrick’ or civic universities of the 19th Century, a third group of universities founded after the 2nd World War and the ‘new universities in the 1990’s. (Oakland, 2006, p.223) There are many reasons for the rapid expansion in the number of students, changes in the society and economy, contributed to the growth of British education. Which factors have led to British higher...
...The High Price of HigherEducation
In America's society today, students are expected to follow the path of day care, grade school, middle school, high school and hopefully college. Growing up in America today, the importance of education is stressed starting at the earliest stages of development. In a world with a competitive job market and with citizens who want to make the most money that they can, a college education is key in success. For some students, financing college is not a problem. Money should not be a factor in the student's decision-making process when choosing what school to attend, but unfortunately many people are unable to attend the university of their choice due to the high costs. Working through college is not always the best answer because this can have a negative effect on academic performance with the added stress. It is true that financial aid and loans are available, but it is sometimes much harder to take advantage of these than people realize. Although universities offer many forms of aid in paying for college, the continually increasing prices still make it impossible for many people to afford highereducation, and lowering prices would be effective in increasing the amount of people able to obtain a college degree.
In today's society, the average income for middle class families is $49,500 (Preliminary Estimates). This is only a little more than the...
In the time I have spent in highereducation, I have noticed that educators generally encounter three categories of students. The first category, about 10 percent of the student population will always succeed because they have the attitude that failure is not an option. The second group, another 10 percent of the population, will inevitably fail, lacking the personal motivation and drive necessary to reach educational goals. Approximately 80 percent of students make up category three. A group full of bright minds that could lean toward either success or failure. This group will most significantly be impacted by changes and improvements in education. The differentiating factor in this group is that each student's response to the same question: "Is investing in my education really worth it?"
Some people are deterred from pursuing highereducation because of the price tag attached. Even though student loans are often available, the idea of repaying student loan debt, with high interest rates and low job prospects is a significant roadblock for many. For students with young families or those who have never considered post-secondary education, it is often much more appealing to take a job out of high school and immediately generate income. These are the students who begin to feel that an education is simply not...
September 20, 2012
Yvette DE La Vega
The Importance of a Good Education 1
Today more people are going back to college in order to obtain a degree of some type. More people are looking for careers and are tired of settling for jobs that they do not like just to get a paycheck. Employers are looking for employee with college degrees in order to present their customer with more qulitified people. A college degree is more importance now than it has ever been. More jobs are being sent overseas today making it harder to find a job, so in order to find a job that will give a person the financial stability they need more adult are returning to college to get their degree.
The Importance of a Good Education 2
The importance of a good education, a good education is the most important thing a person could obtain for themselves. Education is important to us in many aspects of life especially when it comes to your need for personal and social advancement. Education is important because it will open so many different...
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages in America. One who possesses...
...Case Study: Economic Crisis and HigherEducation in the United States
The 2008–2012 economic failure is considered by many economists and investors to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It results in the risk of total collapse from big financial firms, the bailout of banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world. The crisis also plays a significant role in the crash of key businesses and collapse of housing market, results in the delayed unemployment. Highereducation is a large and various venture in the United States, which has impacted by the economic recession in a number of ways, but these impacts have not been the same and vary depending on state and type of institution.
Most highereducation traditions started to be concerned about their financial problems due to economic recession. Their main source of revenue has been hurt by the downturn, and that those universities would need to make hard decisions about how to spend their money. In some states, a lot of institutions are in process of fund-raising programs to avoid delaying their supported campus building projects. Many of highereducation university’s leaders have been considering and solving of two following questions: How is the economic downturn affecting institutions both public and private? What strategies are...
Highereducation in the present world has a very long history. Highereducation has deep roots in the early sixth century when first monastic schools were started in Europe which later developed to the famous European university in Bologna during the period between 1088 and 1090. This is the origin of highereducation with all present systems of highereducation borrowing much from this first intuition and system of highereducation. Until early 20th century, highereducation institutions and particularly universities and high level colleges catered only for the elites in the society. Though in this time basic education was enough to secure an individual a well-paying job, the costs of securing a place in the institutions of highereducation as well as maintaining the costs for the period of a given course locked out the middle income earners as well as the poor. Statistically, by the start of 20th century, 3 per cent of the world population had enrolled in universities and other colleges offering highereducation programs. This number was much concentrated in the European continent...
26 January 2014
The act of seeking highereducation has become more and more necessary for the average American to acquire a stable job in the work force. Likewise, the men and women applying to become collegiate students have in turn drastically increased, which reinforces the importance of highereducation in American society. As a whole, college can be analyzed through three sociological perspectives which include the structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction approaches. Moreover, the structural-functional approach is the best perspective that can be utilized to analyze college because every aspect is based on a purpose to change society through education.
Although the social-conflict approach to analyzing college predominately highlights the negative aspects of college, there is much to be understood from the perspective. Furthermore, the social-conflict approach produces an image of society as operating to “benefit some categories of people and harm others” (Sociology 22). To be sure, college serves as an aspect of society that benefits students who successfully graduate through the system while negatively impacting those who are not able to participate in the system or are not able to successfully graduate. Indeed, it is projected that approximately 60 percent of all job openings in America will require higher...