Diplomacy of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
A model for peace building in 21st century
Dr Ejaz Hussain
Table of Content
Table of Content ………………………………………………………………2 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3 Core Question…………………………………...…………………………….3 Hypothesis……………………………..………………………………………3 Methodology……………………………………..…………………………….3 Literature Review……………………..……………………………………….4 Theoretical Consideration ……………………………………………………5 Diplomacy of Prophet Muhammad ………….………………………………6 References ………………………………………..…………………………7
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a political leader of first Islamic state. He established first political entity in Arabian Peninsula. Various tribes and clans were united under the charismatic leadership of Muhammad. He made treaties with the people of other religions and faiths. He and his companions were persecuted, but he treated other minorities with equality, tolerance, respect and justice. He promised minorities equal rights, security and freedom to practice their religion.
This Study will critically reassess the diplomacy of Prophet Muhammad, and will explore that how diplomatic principles of Muhammad could help today’s world to solve conflicts and achieve peace and stability in their relations.
Core question of this study is to explore:
What lesson can be derived from the diplomacy of Prophet Muhammad?
This study focuses on the following hypothesis:
H: Human nature is basically good. With good habits, education and appropriate international structure, human nature can become the basis of peaceful and cooperative international relationship.
I hypothesize here that diplomacy of Prophet Muhammad was based on principles of tolerance, equality and justice. So by following these principles we can make this world peaceful and progressive.
Methodology and Data Sources
This study employed qualitative method with content analysis approach by evaluating relevant articles and texts.
In 622, migration to Madina marks the start of Muslim era, at this point Islam became a factor in history. It was a revolutionary step by Muhammad. Muhammad had become a head of a collection of tribes that were not bound together by blood but a shared ideology, an astonishing innovation in arabian society. Nobody was forced to convert to religion of Quran, but muslims, pagans, and jews all belonged to one ummah, could not attack one another, and vowed to give one another protection. It proved to be an ispiration that brought peace to arabia before the death of Prophet in 632, just ten years after the migration. (Karen Armstrong, 2002)
It is clear from the constitution of Madina and teachings of Muhammad, that his purpose was to construct out of tribal confederacies a new people driven by his own sense of moral mission. (Anthony Black 2001). Anthony futher explains, the new society was in principle universal, and in practice commercial, individuals were removed fromthemselves and absorbed into the group. The result was a type of society generically different from Greek, Roman and also Euro-christian civilization. On the other hand Muhammad and followers did succeed in creating a society, that was trans-tribal and trans-national. Monotheistic religious minorities were granted a special status as protected peoples (dhimmi). This was a new venture in intercommunal relations. The arrangements made for them under islamic law differed from any previous relationship between conquerors and conquered, or indeed between rulers and subjects. They were allowed to practice their own religion, manage their own private and community affairs according to their own rules. This was a new version of the monotheistic ideal of universal brotherhood.
Ira Lapidus writes about the leadership role of Muhammad and creation of new society based on bonds of common belief instead of bonds of blood. He said as Muhammad’s mission unfolded it...
He is believed to be the last prophet sent to mankind by God. Some believe Him to be the genesis of the Islamic faith. But we best know Him as the messenger and prophet of God.
ProphetMuhammad whose full name is Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Mittalib ibn Hashim was born in the town of Mecca in the year 570. His name is derived from the Arabic word ‘Hamada’ which simply means ‘to glorify’ or ‘to praise.’ Being the first and only child to Abd Allah bin Al-Muttalib and Amina bint Wahb, he was raised by his mother who in adherence to the Meccan tradition entrusted him to a wet nurse called Halima at his childhood days. He grew up in the hilly country learning pure Arabic language.
Unfortunately, at the age of six, he was orphaned and his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, took great care of him afterwards. He was under his grandfather’s care for two years where he was loved very much and preferred over his grandfather’s sons. Abdul Muttalib foretold that Muhammad would hold a prestigious position in the days ahead of him. Mecca’s traditional idolatry and new materialism disturbed Muhammad to a point that he occasionally fasted and meditated. Eventually, he was visited by overpowering being that instructed and recited words of force and beauty to him and he attributed them to God.
After having several...
...ProphetMuhammad was a religious, political, and military leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is believed by Muslims and Baha'is to be a messenger and prophet of God. Muhammad is almost universally considered by Muslims as the last prophet sent by God for mankind.[n 1] Non-Muslims regard Muhammad as the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the restorer of an unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Born in about 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40, that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him is the only way acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from...
The ProphetMuhammad is the founder of Islam. He is known as the Messenger of God to people of the Islamic faith. Muhammad lived a rough life but he also changed people’s lives. His religion has had an effect on millions of people. There are no pictures of Muhammad’s face; he made a point that the religion was to not be about him, but about Allah.
In 570 C.E in Mecca, Arabia a baby boy, a descendant of Abraham named Muhammad, whose name means “highly praised”, was born. Muhammad’s father, Abdullah, died before he was born and his mother, Amina died when he was only six years old. After the death of his mom, he became an orphan. He was taken in by a woman named Halmiah, who became his foster mother. In 595 C.E., Muhammad was contacted by one of his wealthy widowed cousins, Khadijah, who needed him to sell some goods for her. Many of Muhammad’s cousins lived in Mecca, so it was not uncommon that Khadijah had contacted him. He was known for being a very good merchant. Muhammad and Khadijah met several times to discuss the selling of goods. Khadijah began to become interested in him on a personal level, even though she was fifteen years older than Muhammad. Khadijah asked Nufaysah (known as the matchmaker) to ask Muhammad if he was interested in marrying Khadijah. Muhammad and Khadijah were soon...
...Feb 25, 2013
Islam and the ProphetMuhammad peace be upon him
The documentary about the Islamic religion and its founding prophetMuhammad peace be upon him was very interesting to me because, I come from a dominant Muslim country know as Iran and I have never really knew how, from where and by who the Islamic religion started. This movie sums it up in about an hour.
The azan is the sound called five times a day everyday across the world. Nearly a quarter of the people on earth respond to it, bound together by the spirit of Islam. There is no god but Allah (God). In history Islamic civilization has been one of humanities grandest achievement. Worldwide power founded simply on faith. In the western world the Islamic religion has been misunderstood behind the veil of fear but the history of Islam is interwoven in the western civilization. From the way we heal the sick to the numerical ways of counting, cultures across the globe have been shaped by the Islamic civilization.
The prophetMuhammad peace be upon him was born in or around 570 A.D in the Arabian Peninsula. He was from Mecca but was sent to the better one where they had the deeper Arab values. The better one being the town people they kept the authentic Arab culture and poetry. When the prophetMuhammad peace be upon him was six years old both of his parent had died and he was taken on...
...I. A Prophet and His World
A. Muhammad and His Message
1. The Arabian peninsula
a. Nomadic Bedouin lived in the desert-covered peninsula for millennia
1. Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels
2. Organized in family and clan groups
3. Importance of kinship and loyalty to the clan
b. Post-classical Arabia, active in long-distance trade
c. An important link between India/China and Persia/Byzantium
2. Muhammad's early life
a.Muhammad ibn Abdullah born in a Mecca merchant family, 570 C.E.
b. Difficult early life, married a wealthy widow, Khadija, in 595
c. Became a merchant at age 30, exposed to various faiths
3. Muhammad's spiritual transformation
a. At age 40, he experienced visions
1. There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
2. Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
3. The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to Muhammad
b. Did not intend to found a new religion, but his message became appealing
4. The Quran
a. Followers compiled Muhammad's revelations
b. Quran ("recitation"), became the holy book of Islam
c. A work of magnificent poetry
B. Muhammad's Migration to Medina
1. Conflict at Mecca
a. His teachings offended other believers, especially the ruling elite of Mecca
b. Attacks on greed offended wealthy merchants
c. Attacks on idolatry threatened shrines, especially the black rock at Ka'ba
2. The hijra
a. Under persecution,...
...ProphetMuhammad is the founder of the Islamic faith, and also the messenger of God. He is also known as the greatest prophet.
ProphetMuhammad was born in 570 AD in the city of Mecca in Arabia. He was born into a noble Quraish tribe, but at a young age, he became an orphan, and was raised by his uncle. At around 595 AD, a wealthy widow asked Muhammad to be the manager of her trading supplies to Syria. After Muhammad completed the task, she offered him marriage. Even though she was 15 years older than him, they married and had four daughters.
Muhammad was a very faithful and religious man, and he often meditated in caves in the mountains. He spent time thinking about the problems of Mecca, where religions were unimportant and the environment was unsafe. In the year 610 AD, at the beginning of the month of Ramadan, Muhammad heard a voice that said, You are the messenger of God. Later Muhammad decided that it was the Archangel Gabriel that sent him the message from God. Muhammad found many messages from God during his meditations, and he felt that it was his duty to spread them to everyone.
Then Muhammad began to preach to a few people, at first. At around 612 AD, he started to preach publicly, and he soon gained more followers, especially young men. The leaders of the tribes of Mecca also began to...
The ProphetMuhammad is both the final messenger of God and a role-model for the whole of humanity. He was born in Makkah in 571 C.E. in the tribe of Quraish, a highly respected tribe by the Arabs. He was orphaned and at age six and raised by his uncle Abu Talib, who has helped him a great deal by protecting him and taking care of him until he died. He had married a chaste, widowed woman Khadija when she was 45 years old and he was 25 years old. Many people say that he married her for her wealth, but this is highly unlikely since all of his wives were either widowed or divorced and he did not marry another woman until 3 years after her death. When Muhammad reached the age of 40 years, he had a profound experience that changed his life.
ProphetMuhammad used to meditate in the Cave of Hira, where he would seclude himself for days and nights. One night an angel named Gabriel came to him with divine revelation and told him to recite. He said that he could not recite and this happened a second time. On the third time, he asked “Recite What?”, Gabriel replied “Proclaim! Recite! In the name of your Lord and Cherisher, Who created man, out of a leech-like clot: Proclaim! And your Lord Is Most Bountiful, He who taught (the use of) the Pen, Taught man that which he knew not.”. Muhammad was frightened and he went back to his home trembling,...
...proclaimed by Proclaimed by ProphetMuhammad under whose banner the scattered tribes of Arabia became a nation. ProphetMuhammad was born in A.D. 570 at Mecca in Arabia.
From the beginning, Muhammad was absorbed in religion. He would often withdraw and spend days and night at a cave near Mt. Hira close to Mecca. Here he meditated and prayed. One night, as he was alone in the cave the angle Gabriel appeared to him and proclaimed Muhammad to be the messenger of Allah. He bade Muhammad to spread his faith among the people of Arabia.
Muhammad accepted this as a true revelation from heaven and it encouraged him to now announce his mission. He openly announced himself as the prophet of Allah, ‘divinely commissioned to lead the Arab people to a new morality and a monotheistic faith’. Muhammad condemned the worship of many gods and idols, as was then prevalent amongst the Arab tribes. By doing so, he turned the Arabs and also his own tribesmen against himself. He was abused and stoned by them. Some Arabs got together to plan his murder. He took shelter in Medina. His flight to Medina with a group of followers on July 2, A.D. 622 is known as the Hijra and is regarded as the official beginning of the Mohammedan era.
In Medina, Muhammad preached his religion and won many flowers. Muhammad said, “Allah is most...