3. Discuss how different perspectives and approaches to managing knowledge may lead to an organisation’s competitive advantage, supporting your views with pertinent literature and examples.
Knowledge management (KM) is a relatively new concept that emerged 15 or 20 years ago and which presents knowledge as a process, rather as something that people have. Blacker (1995) himself talks of “knowing as a process”, thus something far more complex and ambiguous than the classical and cognitive views that we could have of knowledge. Moreover, this assumption implies, as we shall see, that management is not neutral or objective but that it is intertwined in power relations and social processes that help to achieve the KM’s goals set by managers. Through knowledge management, organisations seek to fully utilize the knowledge that they possess, to create or acquire useful knowledge, in order to achieve maximum effective usage and thus, positively influence organizational performance. By increasing their effective knowledge utilization, it is believed that organisations can acquire greater benefits and acquire competitive advantage. Yet the ways of knowledge management processes are numerous and various and their effectiveness can depend on the type of organisation that necessitates them.
Acquiring competitive advantage through knowledge management has not a sole possible outcome but many, and this might result in better knowledge practices, improved organizational behaviours, better decisions or improved organizational performance (King, 2009). Here, a first approach to gain competitive advantage could be the management of innovation and this has been particularly explored by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995). In their spiral of knowledge model, they focus on the creation of knowledge through the interaction of both explicit and tacit knowledge. According to this theory, in order to accumulate and trigger new spirals of knowledge creation, the key concepts are the “socialization” of individuals who all hold tacit knowledge but need to share it, and the need to turn that tacit knowledge into explicit one, using symbols, metaphors or slogans. Ultimately, by internalizing (or understanding) explicit knowledge, individuals integrate it tacitly and this is how amount of knowledge grow in the organisation. Understanding this theory enable us to appreciate the dynamic nature of knowledge creation through sharing emotions and experiences, mental models and concepts. From Nonaka and Takeuchi’s work follows one of the basic definitions of knowledge management: the process of acquiring knowledge from the organisation or another source and turning it into explicit information that the employees can use to transform into their own knowledge allowing them to create and increase organizational knowledge (King, 2009). By following such structures, managers ensure that all individuals and groups in the organisation are constantly in the process of acquiring new knowledge and become innovative actors.
One of the critics which can be addressed to the spiral of knowledge however, concerns the unitarist view. Indeed, there is no assumption that everyone is progressing towards the same goal and pursues the same interests in the process of learning. This might create a gap between what people learn, and the knowledge that is actually useful for the organisation as a whole (CIPD, 2002). This problem is partially taken in into account in the double-loop learning theory (Argyris, 1976; 1999). As he explains, it is not the organisations’ actions which produce the learning but the individuals and their behaviours that lead to learning. By consequence, they may bring biases and constraints to learning situations that do not fit in the organisation’s requirements. They might already have theories of action of their own with which they have been socialized, resulting in different ways of solving problems between individuals or groups: according...
...Every issue can be presented from different point of views; maybe changing the events that occurred but the issue remains the same. Presenting different points of views may lead to different opinions and different decision making. Being exposed to differentperspectives grants a person the freedom to build their own opinion having in your hand all the information available; however other people believe oppression and narrow-thinking is better than having a free mind.
Every issue, every problem, every topic presents different point of views, different opinions, different ideas. Being exposed to all of these will give you the opportunity to rely on yourself, and challenge your mind to choose the best choice. The fact that you have a choice, and the decision is in your own hands, is a form of freedom, the freedom that everyone seeks in the world. Freedom is a civil right, an elementary constitution of the Republic. Article 18 of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights state that “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.”. The Freedom of thought starts at a young age and depends on the parenting...
...“Tacit Knowledge” versus “Explicit Knowledge”
Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice
Professor of Management, Copenhagen Business School
Linden Visiting Professor for Industrial Analysis, Lund University
Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy
Solbjergvej 3 - 3rd floor
DK 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark
email: [email protected]
This paper explains two fundamentalapproaches to knowledge management. The tacit
knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals
in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,
and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the
explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by
individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and
the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated
knowledge within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of both
approaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit and
knowledge management approaches is recommended to create a...
...London School of Business & Management
BTEC Levels 4 & 5 HND Business
Unit No & Unit Title
Managing Communications, Knowledge and
HND Business Year 1 ( BTEC Level 4 )
Dr Knowledge Mpofu
Assignment Title & Type
Improving Heathrow Airport - 3rd Runway
Plans: Individual Assignment
24th September 2014
09th January 2015
Semester / Academic Year September 2014 Semester
Unit Outcomes Covered:
LO1. Understand how to assess information and knowledge needs
LO2. Be able to create strategies to increase personal networking to widen
involvement in the decision-making process
LO3. Be able to develop communication processes
LO4. Be able to improve systems relating to information and knowledge .
GRADING OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE
Dr Knowledge Mpofu
September 2014 Semester
...Discuss approaches to profiling
There are three approaches to criminal profiling; the British approach, the US approach and Geographical Profiling.
The US approach is a top down approach which means they start with the big parts of the case and work down to the smaller things involved. The approach was invented by the FBI in the 1970’s when they first looked at the family backgrounds, personalities, behaviours, crimes and motives of serial killers who had sexual aspects to their crimes. They then went on to use in-depth interviews with 36 serial killers. The information they gathered from this and the FBI’s experience and intuition they developed the classification system. This classification is why the US approach is a top-down approach.
There are stages to the US Approach which are; data assimilation, crime scene classification, crime reconstruction and profile generation. Data assimilation is where all the data is collected from the crime scene, e.g. pictures, autopsy, witness reports etc. crime scene classification is the second stage and is where evidence is used to put the crime into a typology. There are two types of murders; organised and disorganised and four types of rape which are power-reassurance, power-assertive, anger-retaliatory and anger-excitement. Crime reconstruction is where hypotheses are developed about what the offender and victim did and the sequence of events based on the reconstruction. Profile generation is the...
...Among the different development approaches presented and reviewed by this
writer - learning process approach, sustainable livelihood approach, solidarity economy,
and building natural assets, his interest draw much to the sustainable livelihood and the
natural assets approaches, though all of these approaches as they are interconnected with
each other. One may not be successful in the operation without the other system orapproaches.
In the study conducted by David C. Korten entitled Community Organization and
Rural Development: A Learning Process Approach that offered basis that Third World
development assistance must be anchored in a holistic, learning process rather than the
celebrated blueprint design. While the study involved five cases that carried success
stories of community organization and rural development in the provision and application
of different assistance programs, such development were not brought about by related
role of the blueprint approach in attaining such success.
Another approach of great importance is the solidarity economy approach. This
approach lives with the focus on life-values instead of the deep-rooted profit-values.
Quinones in his paper entitled “Bayanihan for Solidarity Economy,” clearly defined
solidarity economy as a socio-economic order and new way of life that deliberately
chooses serving the needs of people and ecological...
...Assignment No. & title
1601, Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information
This assignment covers the following assessment criteria
LO1. Understand how to assess information and knowledge needs
1.1 discuss the range of decisions to be taken
1.2 examine the information and knowledge needed to ensure effective taking
1.3 assess internal and external sources of information and understanding
1.4 justify recommendations for improvement
LO2. Be able to create strategies to increase personal networking to widen involvement in the decision-making process
2.1 identify stakeholders for a decision-making process
2.2 make contact with those identified and develop business relationships
2.3 involve those identified in the decision-making as appropriate
2.4 design strategies for improvement
The purpose of this assignment:
In modern society, business relationships are becoming more and more important. Information, knowledge and personal networking are playing an important role in decision-making. Communications do not automatically take place effectively in organisations and that both information and work-based knowledge is often insufficient when decisions are made. This unit will let students know how to assess information and knowledge needs and to ensure the information and knowledge be taken effectively. Students also...
...Concept paper on knowledge management:
Project concept: an emerging managerial practice.
There has been a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organisational resource
Added At: 2010-12-11 10:04 PM
Last Updated At: 2010-12-05 10:04 PM
KATHMANDU: Recently we conducted the business plan presentations for EMBA students at Club Himalaya, Nagarkot and one of the plans was on Knowledge Management, which I found pretty interesting.
In the words of Peter Drucker, “Knowledge has become the key economic resource and the dominant — and perhaps even the only — source of comparative advantage.” The future of organisations will now depend on how well this concept is understood and how effectively knowledge is managed and used as a tool to leverage their competitive stance. In the past, there has been a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organisational resource. Consistent with the interest in organisational knowledge and knowledge management (KM), information systems (IS) researchers have begun promoting a class of IS,
referred to as knowledge management systems (KMS).
The objective of KMS is to support creation, transfer, and application of knowledge, both tacit...
...Assignment Evaluation Sheet
| Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals in Business Management |
Unit Title: Managing Communications, Information & Knowledge (MCKI) | Unit Code: 16 | Date Issued: 11.02.13 |
Student Name: | Student ID: | Date Received: |
Lecturer Name: | Internal Verifiers Name: |
Outcomes and assessment requirements
| Outcomes | Assessment requirements |
| | To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to: |
1 | Assess information and knowledge needs internallyand externally to improve decision making and taking | 1 - Identify the range of decisions to be taken |
| | 2 - Review information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking |
| | 3 - Assess internal and external sources of information and understanding |
| | 4 - Make recommendations for improvement |
2 | Create strategies to increasepersonal networking towiden involvement in thedecision-making process | 1 - Identify personnel including customers, other stakeholders and other experts |
| | 2 - Make contact with those identified and develop business relationships |
| | 3 - Involve those identified in decision making as appropriate |
| | 4 - Suggest strategies for improvement |
3 | Develop communicationprocesses to improve thegathering and disseminationof information andorganisational knowledge | 1 - Evaluate existing...