3. Diamond Organizational Model
Leavitt‟s diamond (see Figure 1) presents a balanced and rational view toward complexities affecting KM framework. It also views technology in direct and strong relation with required tasks, employees, and task organization i.e. structure. This model has been widely used as the basis for understanding and realizing organizational changes. Leavitt‟s diamond (1965) demonstrates four groups of organizational variables: task, people, technology, and structure. As the arrows in Figure (1) indicate, Leavitt states that these variables have many transactions with each other. Thus, changing one of them would result in regulatory and compensating change in other components. Technologies are tools that help organizations perform their tasks and help mechanisms turn inputs into products. Knowledge management is not just about management of knowledge work processes or people performing them, since it influences technology and organizational structure as well. The position researched by this framework suggests that only with the consideration of balance among all the four variables it is possible to demonstrate the activities of knowledge management in an organization. Therefore, instead of disregarding the importance of these variables or ignoring one of them (e.g. technology) all together, this famework views all the groups and elements equally and puts all the variables in priority; in this manner, the activities of knowledge management could reach maximum success. Reference:
GOSLIN, K.G., 2008. How instructional leadership is conveyed and perceived in three Alberta high schools, University of Calgary (Canada). Leavitt's Diamond, which postulates that it is rare for any change to occur in isolation, is presented. Of 4 interdependent variables - tasks, structure, technology, and people - change to only one or 2 of the variables will cause problems. Leavitt's (1965) theory is applied to the changes that have taken place in the Management...
...Organizational Culture can be one of the most important means of improving organizational performance.
Organizational Culture has become very important in the last 25 years. Even though it is intangible in nature, it plays a role that is significant and affects employees and organizational operations. It may not guarantee success but companies with strong cultures have almost always, done better than their competition.
What isorganizational culture?
Edgar Schein, a very well known scholar on the subject of organizational culture, defines organizational culture as:
“The culture of a group can now be defined as: A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.”
(Schein 1985, pg 373-374)
To put it in slightly simpler language - As and when an organization evolves it is faced with 2 major problems:
1. Making the individuals who are part of this organization come together and work in friendly and productive environment i.e. integrating individuals.
2. And ensuring survival by coping with the external environment.
As these challenges are dealt with, a shared learning takes place within the organization;...
...“Organization culture” refers to the values and beliefs of an organization. The principles, ideologies as well as policies followed by an organization form its culture. It is the culture of the workplace which decides the way individuals interact with each other and behave with people outside the company. The employees must respect their organization’s culture for them to deliver their level best and enjoy their work. Problems crop up when individuals are unable to adjust to a new work culture and thus feel demotivated and reluctant to perform.
Who is Edgar Schein ?
Edgar Henry Schein born in 1928 is a renowned professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management who has studied extensively in the field of organization management.
Edgar Schein model of organization culture
According to Edgar Schein - Organizations do not adopt a culture in a single day, instead it is formed in due course of time as the employees go through various changes, adapt to the external environment and solve problems. They gain from their past experiences and start practicing it everyday thus forming the culture of the workplace. The new employees also strive hard to adjust to the new culture and enjoy a stress free life.
Schein believed that there are three levels in an organization culture.
The first level is the characteristics of the organization which can be easily viewed, heard and felt by individuals collectively known as artifacts. The dress code of the...
The approach looks at clusters of industries, where the competitiveness of one company is related to the performance of other companies and other factors tied together in the value-added chain, in customer-client relation, or in local or regional contexts
Key Factors in a diamondmodel for analyzing competitiveness
* Factor conditions are human resources, physical resources, knowledge resources, capital resources and infrastructure. Specialized resources are often specific for an industry and important for its competitiveness. Specific resources can be created to compensate for factor disadvantages.
* Demand conditions in the home market can help companies create a competitive advantage, when sophisticated home market buyers pressure firms to innovate faster and to create more advanced products than those of competitors.
* Related and supporting industries can produce inputs which are important for innovation and internationalization. These industries provide cost-effective inputs, but they also participate in the upgrading process, thus stimulating other companies in the chain to innovate.
* Firm strategy, structure and rivalry constitute the fourth determinant of competitiveness. The way in which companies are created, set goals and are managed is important for success. But the presence of intense rivalry in the home base is also important; it creates pressure to innovate in order...
...A CAUSAL MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
W. Warner Burke and George H. Litwin
One might argue that the world does not need yet another organizationalmodel. However, the purpose of this paper is to argue the opposite: a functional-cause-andeffect model based on sound research, theory, and organizational consulting experience can contribute both to scholarly usefulness and to a general understanding of organizations. Organizationalmodels that do little more than describe or depict are frustrating, both from the perspective of research about organizations and from that of consultation to organizational clients. What is needed is a model that predicts behavior and performance consequences, one that deals with cause (organizational conditions) and effect (resultant performance).
Some existing organizationalmodels that are largely descriptive do stipulate certain parameters. Weisbord (1976), for example, states that the role of the leadership box in his six-box model is to coordinate the remaining five. The Nadler-Tushman (1977) model is one of congruence. These authors argue that for effectiveness, the various boxes comprising their model should be congruent with one another; for example, organizational arrangements (structure) should...
Models of Organizational Behavior
* The Elements of an Organizational Behavior System
* The Role of Management’s Philosophy and Paradigm
* Alternative Models of Organizational Behavior and Their Effects
* Trends in the Use of These Models
Table 1.Elements of an Organizational Behavior System
Elements of the System
The Philosophy (model) of organizational behavior held by management consists and integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit, in the minds of manager.
Five major organizational behavior models includes autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial and system.
Selected Element of a Philosophy Statement
* We are committed to quality, cost-effectiveness, and technical excellence.
* People should treat each other with consideration, trust and respect.
* Each person is valuable, is unique, and makes a contribution.
* All employees should be unfailingly committed to excellent performance.
* Teamwork can, and should, produce far more than the sum of individual efforts.
Team members must be reliable and committed to the team.
* Innovation is essential
...automated product look up and restock, et cetera. Employees have electronic time cards that they swipe across the key card time slot when entering for work, taking breaks, and leaving for work.
Ultimately, whether a business is 50 people or less or 500 or more employees, the management structures and roles tend to be the same. A lot of store use the same main IT functions with little to no change, and the hierarchical organization structure tends to be different and may or may not work for a specific company.
Main Functions of Management Roles. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Main-Functions-of-Management&id=4379082
Management Roles. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://boundless.com/management/organizational-structure--2/defining-organization/management-role-in-organization/
...Organizational Change Models and Change Strategies
Martin H. Pham
To remain competitive in today’s economy companies must be ready to manage organizational change effectively and efficiently. With the pace of change continually increasing, everyone is affected by change. Organizational change models are used to assist in reorganizing and/or restricting a company. There are many change models that exist today which have different tools and benefits. By comparing and contrasting each model to determine which would best fit the specific situation, one could be successful in managing change (Benajmin, Naimi, & Lopez 2012).
Looking at the factors that were drivers for organizational change for Boeing, I have chosen one of the oldest diagnostic models called the Six-Box OrganizationalModel. Marvin Weisbord created it as a result of his effort to combine data, theories, research and ideas into an instrument for anyone to use. The two elements of organizational life that Weisbord focused on were the “task” and the “process”. This model is mainly used with cause analysis to help change managers see how organizations and society influence each other simultaneously. The six variables, which represent...
...Models of Organizational Behaviour
ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM
The system’s base rests in the fundamental beliefs and intentions of those who join together to create it such as owners and managers who currently administer it. The philosophy of organizational behaviour held by management consists of an integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit, in the minds managers.
Organizations differ in the quality of organizational behaviour that they develop. These differences are substantially caused by different models of organizational behaviour that dominant management’s thought in each organization. The model that a manager holds usually begins with certain assumptions about people and thereby leads to certain interpretations of organizational events.
The following four models of organizational behaviour are as follows: A. Autocratic model
B. Custodial model
C. Supportive model
D. Collegial model
In an autocratic model’, the manager has the power to command his subordinates to do a specific job. Management believes that it knows what is best for an organization and therefore,...