Development of Immigration Policy in Japan
I Introduction: Immigration Flow
Any gGaijinh that has come to Japan may have had the awkward feeling of an invisible barrier that is felt in the immigration policies of Japan. A country that is an island could be a reason of the peculiar (from the world standard) policies that the Japanese government has implemented throughout history. My paper is divided in four sections. The first point that we should discuss is the chronological development of immigration flow in Japan. In particular, we will focus our attention on the history since World War II. Secondly, we will analyze the development of integration policy in Japan. Following that, we will consider the main issues recently discussed. Thirdly, we will examine the admission and control policy in Japan, as well as we will deal with the main issues recently caused by social changes. Lastly, we shall conclude with a criticism of a lacking a comprehensive administration office for integration policy. In Japan, the chronological development of immigration flow can be illustrated by the six periods shown in table 1.
Table 1. Chronological development of immigration flow 1639- (1) No immigration during the isolation period (1639-1853).
(2) Opening the door, large emigration and colonial immigration (1853-1945). (3) Strictly controlled immigration and emigration (1945-1951). (4) Strict immigration even during the time of advanced economic growth (1951-1981). (5) Strict immigration but refugees accepted and aliensf rights are improved (1981-1990) (6) Relatively strict immigration but ethnic repatriates (front door), trainees (side door) and irregulars (back door) come to work as unskilled workers (1990- ).
1)Old Comers and New Comers
The number of registered foreigners has increased rapidly over a recent twenty-five year period as shown in table 2.able @Koreans are the major foreign group. Many of them are descendants of immigrants during the second period of colonial immigration. They are called gold comersh . Some new comer Koreans have immigrated to Japan while the number of old comer Koreans has decreased. That is why the number of Koreans does not vary greatly over these twenty-five years. However, the numbers of Chinese, Filipino, Brazilian and others are rapidly increasing because of Japanfs economic growth since the Plaza Agreement in Mid-1980s and they are called gnew comersh.
2) Advanced Economic Growth Period with Fewer Immigrants
A peculiar point of Japanese immigration history is the fourth period of advanced economic growth with fewer immigrants. In Europe, on the contrary, before the economic recession of the first oil crisis in 1973 liberal immigration policy led to a huge number of economic immigrants; the so called gguest workersh. What are the reasons that Japan had so little immigration at that time compared to other developed countries? A sociologist explained this observation by the following four factors:
1) Large domestic migration: Japan had more farmers than Western countries and many farmers moved from rural to urban industrial areas during the period of rapid economic growth (1955-1973); 2) Automation: Japan had succeeded in improving manufacturing techniques through microelectronics, robots and automation, and as a result, less demand arose for foreign unskilled workers; 3) Utilization of house wives, students and elderly people as part-time labor: In Japan, university students are able to work for some hours even on week days. Usually, high school students study hard but university students do not study as hard in Japan because the being accepted into a famous university is one the most important goals of the students. Additionally, labor unions are weak and managers could hire part-time (cheap) labor more flexibly than Western countries;
4) Long working hours (total hours worked in a year):
In 1982: 2100 hours in Japan, 1690 hours in West Germany and 1650 hours...
Public PolicyImmigrationPolicyImmigration is important to a nation’s growth and economy. As of 2012, U.S. immigrant population is 40.8 million, or 13% of total U.S. population (Nwosu, Batalova, Auclair, 2014). Between 2011 and 2012, foreign-born population in the US increased by 447,000, or 1.1% (Nwosu, Batalova, Auclair, 2014). 16% of the United States civilian labor force, or 25.7 million out of 157.6 million workers is made up of immigrants (Nwosu, Batalova, Auclair, 2014). The top 5 U.S. states for number of immigrants are California with 10.3 million, New York with 4.4 million, Texas with 4.3 million, Florida with 3.7 million, and New Jersey with 1.9 million (Nwosu, Batalova, Auclair, 2014). However, immigration is a controversial issue. Just like many issues, the Democrats and Republicans have apposing viewpoints when it comes to immigrationpolicy. The Democrats are pro-amnesty, while Republicans are anti-amnesty. In the United States, most of the illegal immigrants enter the country through the US/Mexico border. As of 2011, there are around 11,500,000 illegal immigrants in the United States (ProCon.org, 2013).
With this many illegal immigrants in the country, it causes problems. For example, it puts an economic burden on tax-paying citizens by taking away jobs from US citizens and giving some businesses unfair economic advantages. Since...
...ImmigrationPolicy in Japan in the 21st Century
Course Title: International Migration
Course Code: BE 22 421
Name: Onyejelem Prince Daniel O.
STUDENT ID: 201118001
School of Social and International Studies, G30 program
The rapid increase in the number of immigrants to Japan during the Heisei era has raised anxieties among Japanese about the future of their country, national identity, and how to manage the influx. There is a muted public discourse about this politically sensitive subject against the backdrop that it has been examined as a rapidly aging society and a declining workforce tasked with supporting soaring outlays for retires’ pensions and medical care. This problem is looming as the workforce is projected to decline from about 65 million in 2010 to 55 million in 2030. The question of how widely Japan should open its domestic labor market to foreign workers, former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi stated in 2005, "If the foreign labor exceeds a certain level, it is bound to cause a clash. It is necessary to consider measures to prevent it and then admit foreign workers as necessary. Just because there is a labor shortage does not mean we should readily allow foreign workers to come in." (Chikako 2006)
Immigration to Japan: Migration is not a new phenomenon. When people believe they can receive higher incomes, better education,...
...United Kingdom: A Reluctant Country of Immigration
By Will Somerville, Migration Policy Institute
Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah, Royal Commonwealth Society
Maria Latorre, Institute for Public Policy Research
Immigration to the United Kingdom in the 21st century is larger and more diverse than at any point in its history. As the global recession bites, early evidence shows a reduction in the numbers of immigrants coming to work. However, fundamental dynamics indicate sustained net immigration is here to stay.
Although the United Kingdom has received immigrants for centuries, the country has traditionally been a net exporter of people; only from the mid-1980s did the United Kingdom become a country of immigration.
The last decade nevertheless differs markedly because of high levels of net immigration, a surge generated in large part by sustained economic growth for the last 15 years. Since 2004, immigration levels have been boosted by an extraordinary wave of mobility from Eastern European countries, particularly Poland, whose citizens have free movement and labor rights following European Union (EU) enlargement.
Public anxiety about immigration, fueled by media attention, has risen in parallel to the numbers. Monthly polling data from the IpsosMORI agency shows that beginning in the late 1990s, people identified race and...
ImmigrationpoliciesImmigration reform is a topic that has been discussed heavily and heavily debated in congress for quite some time now. Which in hand those debates have led nowhere. All we keep doing is just putting a delay on immigration reform, and all that’s doing is wasting money, time, and lives as well. Lets talk about how much money we’ve estimated to spend since our last overhaul… $186.8 billion alone onimmigration enforcement, but yet with all that money paying for immigration enforcement it still didn’t keep immigrants out of the United States nor did it convince them to leave. Even after all that money we’ve spent to make the enforcement better the numbers of unauthorized immigrants have tripled to more than 11 million. So no matter how much money we’re paying for the enforcement it wont stop illegal immigrants from crossing the boarder and trying to get into the United States, yeah it might make it harder for them but doesn’t mean they wont find a way of getting in.
Since the 1990’s our immigration enforcement budget has increased massively but has yet to prove any effective methods of deterring unauthorized immigration. Since 1993 when our current method of our border enforcement was first enforced along the Mexican/USA boarder, the annual budget was $363 million and now has increased to more than $3.5 billion. Each border enforcement...
...ImmigrationPolicies of the United States and Japan
Why do similar modern democracies like the United States and Japan have strikingly different immigrationpolicies? Despite both countries having post-industrial economies in need of qualified, skilled labor, their policies in regard to this crucial issue remain on complete opposite ends of the spectrum. While one would think that countries as developmentally analogous as the United States and Japan would share similar policies and goals in regard to immigration, this is hardly the case. The United States takes a very liberal approach to immigration and accepts it as a regular and necessary utility of society; Japan, on the other hand, implements a much more restrictive policy and views immigration more as a last resort than anything close to a necessity. In total, the United States accepts between seven and eight times more immigrants than Japan (Hollander). These distinct differences in policy come from two main sources; dissimilarities in both culture and governmental structure play a large role in the variance of immigrationpolicies in these two, otherwise comparable, countries.
The first, and perhaps most significant, factor in the differences in...
...Immigration: Liberty and Justice for All
There are many social problems making up our criminal justice system. The significant problem I chose to emphasize on is illegal immigration. Immigration is a major social problem in the criminal justice system because the laws or regulations are always changing, and some people are just not willing to accept change. As with anything, illegal immigration does have its consequences and does not always impact society in a positive manner, but in general, immigration is very important to the economy and diversity of the United States. Immigration has been responsible for religious changes, cultural change and population growth throughout the history of the United States. The political, economic, and social aspects of immigration have created much controversy in regards to religion, ethnicity, job growth, economic benefits, poverty, crime, moral values, and work habits.
Immigration is a highly debated and significant issue in our criminal justice system today. Immigration has several outcomes both good and bad. New immigrants bring our country diversity and introduce new customs, beliefs, and ways of life. Immigration also causes problems for some in our society who feel as if they are taking away jobs, criminally active and overall negatively impacting society. In the United States, we all...
...America offers great job opportunities and a healthy environment to live. Some of the reasons for leaving their homeland to become residents in America are: wealth, prosperity, hardship, poverty and family. Sometimes, their previous country they resided does not provide enough money to live. Nothing in the world is free and sometimes jobs are not so easy to get, especially with no education. Most immigrants live in poverty, and with no education, jobs do not come easily, making it hard to live in their country. America offers both, education and job opportunities. Now is the time for the government of the United States to considerately review and pass laws regarding immigration to this country and provide a modern, safe and reasonable system for immigration.
A reason why America is affected and objects to immigration, is the population, it brings cheap labor and it lowers America's living standards. A long time ago, America had room for immigrants and welcomed foreign visitors, until about ninety years ago that changed. Congress passed a law limiting the numbers of immigrants. Since 1908 migrant labor has been part of America all along, doing America’s dirty work. America, even though one of the strongest country, cannot survive without Immigrants. There are more than 10 million undocumented workers in the United States. Most of these illegal workers are concentrated in the south border from California trough Texas, although...
January 9, 2012
Domestic Violence and Elderly Abuse has grown rapidly across the United States. “The American Medical Association defines domestic violence or ‘intimate partner abuse’ as the physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse to an individual perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner” (Lawrence, 2002, p. 1). Elderly Abuse is another serious problem that Americans are facing daily. Elderly abuse has a range of abusive situations; financially, emotionally, physically, and abuse from a caregiver or family member.
This paper will focus on Domestic Violence and Elderly Abuse Policy. Including statistics, facts, and the public opinion on historical information, this paper will support the policy proposition. Adding in information from political and judicial viewpoints will help to implement the policy recommendations. Allowing opinions from the many stakeholders shows the greater impact each position carries with criminal justice policies, procedures, and the law.
Relevant Statistics and Facts
When breaking down the numbers of elderly abuse in the United States, one must look at the entire population. An estimation of 35 million people were residing in the United States in 2000. Of those 35 million people, 13% were 65 years or older. Roughly 2% of that 35...