Decision making (decision from Latin decidere "to decide, determine," literally "to cut off," from de- "off" and caedere "to cut") can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternative scenarios. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. * |
Decision making stages
Developed by B. Aubrey Fisher, there are four stages that should be involved in all group decision making. These stages, or sometimes called phases, are important for the decision making process to begin Orientation stage – This phase is where members meet for the first time and start to get to know each other. Conflict stage – Once group members become familiar with each other, disputes, little fights and arguments occur. Group members eventually work it out. Emergence stage – The group begins to clear up vague opinions by talking about them. Reinforcement stage – Members finally make a decision, while justifying themselves that it was the right decision. It is said that critical norms in a group improves the quality of decisions, while the majority of opinions (called consensus norms) do not. This is due to collaboration between one another, and when group members get used to, and familiar with, each other, they will tend to argue and create more of a dispute to agree upon one decision. This does not mean that all group members fully agree — they may not want argue further just to be liked by other group members or to "fit in".
A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Applications of MIS ---------With computers being as ubiquitous as they are today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT systems. However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable. Strategy Support While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making. MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision making. Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and implementation of strategy. MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually. MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations - hypothetical scenarios that answer a range of ‘what if’ questions regarding alterations in strategy. For instance, MIS systems can provide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price would have on a product. These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within an enterprise than would be possible without MIS systems.
Information Resources Management (IRM) is an emerging discipline that helps managers assess and exploit their information assets for business development. It draws on the techniques of information science (libraries) and information systems (IT related). It an important foundation for knowledge management, in that deals systematically with explicit knowledge. Knowledge centres often play an important part in introducing IRM into an organization. Identification:-
American University of Culture and Education
Management Information System
The Role of MIS in the Decision-Making Process
Problem solving and decision-making are two important skills for any business process. Problem solving often involves decision-making, which is mainly important for management and leadership. According to BusinessDictionary.com,decision-making is “The thought process of selecting a logical choice from the available options.” Thus, logical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their knowledge in a given area to make suitable decisions. For example, medical decision-making often involves making a diagnosis and selecting an appropriate treatment. And since every manager takes hundreds and hundreds of decisions, it is vital to provide him an information system where he/she can have quick access to data in case a decision is needed. These systems can also compare planned goals with practical decisions, giving managers a sense of how the decisions fit. The Management Information System or MIS is “an organized approach to the study of the information needs of...
...NOT ALL MANAGERS ARE EFFECTIVE DECISION MAKERS
Decisionmaking can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (cognitive process) leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decisionmaking process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice.
This paper seeks to answer the question that ‘not all managers are effective decision makers’ and to do this effectively it explains the decisionmaking process, the scientific approach to decisionmaking in a complex organization, ways to improve decisionmaking as well as the mistakes that are commonly made by managers when makingdecisions.
Decisionmaking is a core part of a manager’s job, there’s just no getting around it. Yet so many managers, who are thoughtful and analytical, completely miss the boat when it comes to decisionmaking. This is unacceptable behavior from any professional manager, particularly when it comes to the really big decisions. Hiring, large purchases, organizational restructuring, etc, are all places where structured decisionmaking ought to come into play. The big problem is that, although good...
Reading 1.5 Jackall, R. (1998), Chapter 4, ‘Looking up and looking around’, in Moral Mazes, Oxford University Press, NY.
In this article, the author sees decisionmaking as a blend of authority and developmental patterns. He classifies managers into consensus managers who cleverly persuade their team to advance towards set goals and take-in charge guys who drive others through their effective leadership. However, the decisionmaking capability of managers are often restricted by their personal and political issues abound in all organisations.
He says that while critical decisions involving substantial money and significant impacts on one’s organisation are needed to be taken, managers tend to resort to what he calls looking up and looking around. It is not due to their inefficiency in making important decisions, rather their fear of failure coupled with doubt in one’s capability that forces them to rely on others before taking a dive.
While these aspects compel managers to choose short-term safety over long-term benefits, this method aids them in diluting their responsibilities amongst others involved. By doing so, in case of a failure, the managers have an advantage of shifting the blame on others instead of bearing it on themselves. The author sights the lack of proper responsibility tracking mechanisms as the reason for such blame games. As a result, an...
...many tasks of white-collar employees
Automate certain decision processes especially those dealing with customers
(Since the question reads “some,” a correct answer need not list all of these.)
4. Define the strategy gap.
The strategy gap is the gap between the current performance of an organization and its desired performance as expressed in the mission, objectives and goals, and the strategy to achieve them.
Section 1.3 Review Questions
5. Describe the three major managerial roles, and list some of the specific activities in each.
Managerial roles fall into the three major categories:
Interpersonal activities. Examples of interpersonal activities include being a figurehead, a leader and a liaison.
Informational activities. Examples of informational activities include monitoring, disseminating and acting as a spokesperson.
Decisional activities. Examples of decisional roles include being an entrepreneur, handling disturbances, allocating resources and negotiating.
6. Why have some argued that management is the same as decisionmaking?
Some argue that decisionmaking is consistently rated as either the most important or one of the most important components of managing. However, as also seen in this section, others have defined many managerial roles besides decisionmaking.
7. Describe the four steps...
...Decisionmaking from cognitive or normative perspective can be defined as the process of selecting best logical choice from various available options and choices.
Majority of decisions in business are normative as they are based on logical decisionmaking.
Dr. Yost describes decisionmaking as a concept on a continuum of conscientiousness and depth of deliberations. On one end of spectrum is conscious, well thought of, rational decisionmaking, in between “real world” bounded rationality and at the extreme other end, unconscious, without inference and or use of reason, intuition. Organizations should use the best available rational decisionmaking process routinely under ordinary circumstance but one should be more conscientious, if potential impact of poor decision is known. One bad decision can impact whole organization, and with it future of employees, stock holders and community as a whole. Rational decisionmaking results in “maximum payoff”. Rational decisionmaking results in high quality decision outcome. It is based on facts and figures. Involves accurate identity of problem and limiting factors, allocates appropriate weightage to criteria, develops, analyzes and selects best alternatives (brainstorming by Nominal...
...Stage 1 Problem Recognition
Problem recognition is the initial step in the purchase decision, and requires the consumer to perceive a difference between a person's ideal and actual situations big enough to trigger a decision. In the present scenario, Zac has already decided that he wants to purchase a digital camera. Possible reasons for him to arrive at this decision could be:
Zac might be a photography enthusiast who has been using film cameras, and now wants to try using a digital camera instead. His decision to purchase a new camera would be motivated by his interest in photography, and he would be likely to value image quality.
As an executive, Zac's job scope is very likely to include writing reports or giving presentations. Hence, his decision might be triggered by the desire to increase the quality of his work produced through the use of digital photographs. Thus, he would want to have a user-friendly camera and accompanying software.
Being young, Zac is likely to be influenced by his peers or the mass media in the form of advertisements when buying luxury goods including electronic goods like digital cameras. As such, he would be likely to view a digital camera as a status symbol, and he would demand to have a camera which is well-perceived in his social circle in the form of branding or design.
Stage 2 ...
...The Effects of Technology on DecisionMaking
January 16, 2012
The Effects of Technology on DecisionMaking
Advances in health care technology are forever changing the way health care providers and health care consumers make decisions. Whether it is making a decision on a patient’s diagnosis or plan of care or the patient assuming responsibility of their own health and well-being via researching the internet, technology continues to improve the efficacy of health care in various ways.
Computer systems are one way that health care providers have integrated technology into the medical field. Each computer system is unique, yet all have a purpose, function and structure. Deciding what computer system to choose, what software programs to incorporate and what the computer is needed to do are just a few burdens that have to be weighed when deciding which is best suited for the health care organization. Many health care organizations elect to incorporate decision support systems. Decision support systems have been in increasing patient quality of care, increasing positive patient outcomes and decreasing the potential of medical errors.
Bar coding, robotics, interactive websites, electronic medical records, and e-scribing are just a...
...because the OD group had to be moved
there because of the executive decisions. They also chose Indar Kripalani as the central contact
The alternatives could have been to have all of the members of the OD group have equal
power and agree on all decisions before makingdecisions. The power struggle was lost because
of the difference of dress code. The two (Indar and Kay) represented micro change and the rest
of the OD group represented the Macro change.
Finally, I would recommend that the John Zoltan who hired the OD group in the beginning
followed through with all of the people who he hired. He should have had an open door policy
for all of the OD group. He seemed to favor Indar and Kay. He also should have made the
decision on moving the OD group to the Human Resource department. The executive decision to
have Indar Kripalani as the central contact showed bias on behalf of the company’s managers.
HEXADECIMAL COMPANY 4
In conclusion, when the president of a company makes a decision to begin an OD group he
needs to continually follow up on the group and designate time to see the progress and
development of the OD group before deciding to let the executives make the final decisions.
If it was not within the budget he should have put a cap on it from the very beginning. Now the...