Cross-City Evidence on the Relationship between Immigration and Crime / 457
on the Relationship
Kristin F. Butcher
Anne Morrison Piehl
Public concerns about the costs of immigration and crime are high, and sometimes overlapping. This article investigates the relationship between immigration into a metropolitan area and that area’s crime rate during the 1980s. Using data from the Uniform Crime Reports and the Current Population Surveys, we find, in the cross section, that cities with high crime rates tend to have large numbers of immigrants. However, controlling for the demographic characteristics of the cities, recent immigrants appear to have no effect on crime rates. In explaining changes in a city’s crime rate over time, the flow of immigrants again has no effect, whether or not we control for other city-level characteristics. In a secondary analysis of individual data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that youth born abroad are statistically significantly less likely than native-born youth to be criminally active.
Immigration and crime are not only two of today’s “hot-button” issues in politics, they seem to occupy the same region of the public mind. The constant juxtaposition of the words “immigration” and “crime” in news story after news story might forge the perception of a causal link between the two issues. Juxtaposition, however, is not the only way in which the two are linked by those in the policy arena.
A direct relationship is assumed to exist between illegal immigration and crime.1 An explicit example of this is in Proposition 187 in California. This proposition has received most attention for the connections it asserts between illegal immigration and the rising costs of public expenditures on welfare and schools. However, the proposition also highlights victimization. Section 1 of the law reads, “The People of California find and declare as follows: . . . That they have suffered and are suffering personal injury and damage caused by the criminal conduct of illegal aliens in this state.”
Although illegal immigrants are typically cited as contributing to crime, there is also a great deal of legislative attention aimed at “criminal aliens” regardless
458 / Cross-City Evidence on the Relationship between Immigration and Crime of their immigration status [see Butcher and Piehl, 1998]. The 104th Congress included a large number of bills, amendments, and resolutions that took aim at this issue.2 For example in 1996, then Senator Dole sponsored the “AntiTerrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act.”3 This act is primarily a crime prevention measure, yet a large section of it is devoted to immigration issues. Title IV of this act is entitled “Terrorist and Criminal Alien Removal and Exclusion.” Subtitle D (“Criminal Alien Procedural Improvements”) includes myriad amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act (currently under debate), the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, and the U.S. Code. The proposals are aimed at streamlining the deportation of criminal aliens and improving the working relationship among the various divisions of government that oversee immigration and crime control in order to help identify and punish criminal aliens. The 1994 crime law itself covered many of these same topics.
Politicians also frequently draw a causal relationship between immigration and crime in public statements about the policies they propose. For example, in a 1996 editorial about the immigration bills then being debated in the two houses of Congress, some versions of which sought to reduce the numbers of legal immigrants admitted, and all versions of which promised to “crack down” on...
...Relationshipbetween Guns and Crime
Over the past decade or so, crime has been on a constant decrease. Most of which has to do with increased law enforcement and stricter policies on the sales of guns. Many people believe that guns are the sole reason that crimes are committed. Some research proves that belief wrong, yet other statistics can argue the exact opposite. In America, gun ownership is about three out of every ten people. A majority of these people included in the 33% that actually have guns, are said to only use them for hunting, protection, or a feeling of safety. In a scenario in which a gun is used to commit a crime, it hardly resembles the populous of the 33% gun ownership rate that is seen in the poll. This is mostly due to the fact of the general population which is underage, being able to get a hold of a weapon illegally for homicidal use. One example would be the Columbine shooting. All of the bullets were purchased at a local retail store but the guns could not have been vended out to the underage teenagers. Instead they were purchased by older people with the availability to buy the gun for the minor. Here the illegally possessed guns are not counted in the statistic stated above. It is easy to see how guns and crime can be easily related when people that are not certified or allowed to have a weapon do have use of it, it is extremely dangerous and...
...How Close Is The RelationshipBetween
Social Deprivation and Crime?
Poverty is generally regarded as absolute deprivation. Poverty is defined as the lack of some fixed level of material goods necessary for survival and minimal well-being. Areas that rank high on measures of deprivation, such as high unemployment, low levels of income and poor quality accommodation, are often characterised by high levels of crime and disorder. This is because some individuals respond to the conditions they have to live in by resorting to property crime to address their grievances, whilst other people may develop a deep anger that can be released in violent ways. I think that the relationshipbetween social deprivation and crime is relatively close. However not all of the people who commit crimes are necessarily socially deprived. There are also many other reasons as to why people commit crimes.
According to ****, "when unemployment goes up 1%, there is a 4% increase in homicides, a 6% increase in robberies, a 2% increase in burglaries and measurable effects on rape and other crimes." This backs up the idea that social deprivation bares some link to high crime rates. Also according to the same people, "the highest rates for domestic burglary, assault and wounding and robbery and theft from the person were found in socially...
...traditional Marxists, they argue that the structure of capitalist society explains crime through criminogenic capitalism, selective enforcement, and the state and law making. Neo- Marxists agree with much of the traditional Marxists views of crime but argue that it is far too simplistic as there are wider factors which lead to crime such as the labelling theory. In this essay I am going to be assessing the different Marxists views of therelationshipbetweencrime and social class.
For Marxists, crime is inevitable in capitalism because capitalism is criminogenic which means that the nature of a capitalist society causes crime as Marxists believe that it is based on the exploitation of the working class. Capitalism is based on the exploitation of the working class who are used as a means of profit at any cost, this can be particularly damaging to the working class causing there to be a rise in crime due to factors such as poverty which means that crime may be they only way that the working class can survive and that crime may only be committed as this is the way that the working class can obtain consumer goods which are encouraged by capitalist advertising causing crimes such as theft. In addition, the need for the ruling class to win at all coasts and gain as much profit as they can leads to them...
...LaGuardia Community College
Paper #2: The RelationshipBetween Substance Abuse and Crime
December 11, 2012
Do you know someone who has done drugs? Well of course you do, we all do. Drugs are defined as “a substance that has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body”, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary. Researchers are focusing their attention on the aspect of drug addiction and drug abuse. Creating an outlet to drug awareness is the government’s ultimate goal in aiding families and individuals who are suffering. Unfortunately, drug abuse and drug addiction are extremely common among today’s society. “Criminality and substance abuse have long been linked. Criminal acts can range from activities such as driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, domestic violence, robberies, assaults, prostitution and rape. The manufacturing or distribution of illegal drugs such as methamphetamine or cannabis and the use of such drugs are also serious acts punishable by the law.” Drug abuse is a disorder that is characterized by a detrimental pattern of utilizing a substance, which leads to major problems in a person’s life. In the United States of America, twenty-five percent of the total number of deaths are attributed to drug abuse. Behavioral characteristics of users also vary depending upon drug of choice. “All drugs are not the same and some have greater likelihood to be related to violent...
...The Relationshipbetween Drugs and Crime
Sandra Lynn Manela
CRJ308: Psychology of Criminal Behavior
January 21, 2012
The Relationshipbetween Drugs and Crime
There are two major factors facing the Criminal Justice system: crime and drugs. Crime has many faces and comes in all forms from petty theft to serial murders. Possession of illegal drugs is also against the law. If drugs are against the law to have in possession, it is also called a crime. Crimes do not have to involve drugs; however, the first thing that happens when a crime is committed, whether a murder, a wreck, or theft, is a thorough search for drugs to determine if drugs and the crime have a relationship. That is because there is so much crime centered on drugs. Although they are synonymous, it does not take one to have the other.
Just because someone uses drugs, it does not mean that the individual will commit any other crime besides the one of possession. There are casual drug users just as there are casual alcohol drinkers. Drug use does not create a criminal offender; however, it may intensify such actions (The RelationshipBetween Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho, 2010). One may smoke marijuana and never commit harsher...
...There is no question that drugs and crime are related, however difficulty stands when trying to establish a causal connection between the two. According to Ronald Akers, ‘compared to the abstaining teenager, the drinking, smoking and drug taking teen is much more likely to be getting into fights, stealing, hurting other people and committing other delinquencies’ (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). At a surface level, drugs and crime are linked as it is a criminal offence to possess certain substances unlawfully, however when looking deeper, where drugs are said to cause, influence or be associated with offending behaviour the subject becomes quite unclear. Three major models exist that examine the drugs-crime link and will be discussed thoroughly throughout this essay. Firstly is the model that suggests drug use leads to crime and offending behaviour. It offers the explanation that drug-users are enslaved, or behaving in ways which satisfy the craving which very often leads to participating in criminal behaviour. A second model explains that crime leads to drug use, and the third that drug use and crimes have a common aetiology. Throughout this essay these models will be examined deeply in order to try and best understand the relationshipbetween drug use and offending behaviour.
The idea that drug use leads to crime is by far the most...
...CRIME A SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPT
Crime is an offence against law of our country. It is an offence omitted for which punishment is imposed after conviction. Crime violates the law is something against our society, moral and belief system.
It is seen that society and its existing laws define crime. Sometimes crime in one society may not seem as crime in another society. Sometimes crime refers to socio-culture and religious belief. Crime may differ from country to country. It may be seem as crime in one country an not in others for example homosexuality is a crime in Bangladesh and can convicted if they are seen committing the offence but in western country they are given right and if any discrimination against them can be challenged in court.
Bigamy is seen as crime in western country while this is not the case in is Islamic country
During soviet era any one tried to defect to west were treated as criminal and any one possessing American dollar without any official notice were convicted. Cannabis were allowed as painkiller in Victorian times but now it is illegal in Uk.
Crime differ from society to society but crime like rape, murder, theft etc. are common everywhere.
Crime defined by various scholar Aristotle postulate that poverty is the parent...
...CROSS-CULTURAL SUPERVISION IN
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY THERAPY
James P. Marshall
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding
of the various cultural factors that influence the supervisor-trainee
relationship when at least one of these individuals is a member of an
ethnic minority group in the United States. Marriage and Family
Therapy supervisors and students were asked to compare and contrast their experiences working with ethnic minority and white persons. Findings indicate that both supervisors and students express
great value in cross-cultural supervisory experiences, but report that
these opportunities are very limited.
KEY WORDS: supervision; cross-cultural; multicultural; marriage and family therapy.
Currently, literature describing cross-cultural supervision processes in Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) as well as in other
mental health fields is limited. Although there have been studies conducted on cross-cultural therapy, and methods for introducing cultural awareness and sensitivity into training programs (McGoldrick,
Pearce, & Giordano, 1982; McGoldrick, Giordano, & Pearce, 1996;
Hardy & Laszloffy, 1995; Preli & Bernard, 1993; Hardy, 1993; Falicov, 1988; Pedersen, 1985), little is known about the cross-cultural
dynamics present in clinical supervision (Brown & Brown, 1995).
Elizabeth Wieling, PhD, is an assistant professor,...