Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan
By Seth G. Jones
RAND Corporation, 2008, 144 pages
Reviewed by: Mariely Norris, Student
Taking a look at this monograph we can find a close examination of the counterinsurgency operations in Afghanistan followed by the appearance of the Taliban regime in 2001. It is based on repeated trips to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India from (2004-2008). The author focused on the early stages of the insurgency (2002-2008) and examines how and why it began. The author also draws lessons from the broader literature on counterinsurgency warfare and provides recommendations to help the United States develop capabilities and improve performance in future counterinsurgency operations. His research focuses mainly on the U.S. military but also discusses the actions of other U.S. government agencies, countries, international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Jones is trying to get the interest of a broad audience of policymakers and academics concerned with counterinsurgency and the related issues of state-building, nation-building, and stability operations.
Based on Jones’ study, there are three questions asked in order to examine the beginning of the insurgency in Afghanistan. First, what was the nature of the insurgency? Second, what factors have contributed to the rise of insurgencies more broadly and to the insurgency in Afghanistan in particular? Third, what capabilities should the U.S. military consider developing to improve its ability to wage effective counterinsurgency operations? The core argument of Jones’ study is that the United States should focus its resources on developing capabilities that help improve the capacity of what he calls “indigenous government” and its security forces to wage counterinsurgency warfare. In Chapter Two he provides an analysis of 90 insurgencies since 1945 that indicate three variables correlated with the success (and failure) of...
...parahon called tunbun. They often wear a short vest or jacket over their shirt as well. The shoes recommended to wear can range from a variety of shoes, sneakers, boots, sandals, or even dress shoes. Afghan men also were a piece called a pato. A pato is a shawl like blanket
used for a number of purposes such as a cover for sleeping, a prayer rug, or a cover for their laps and feet while they are sitting down on the ground.
Men that live in Afghanistan also wear something on their head like the women but instead of a burqa the wear a cap or a turban. They wear these pieces daily. The caps that the men wear come in many different colors and patterns to set them apart in the many ethnic groups. Usually the young boys only wear caps while the older men wear caps or turbans. The cap that the men wear usually identifies their social class while there clothing does not. Men and women alike dress the way they do so that they can maintain a level of spirituality and modesty.
Another interesting piece about Afghanistan is the jewelry aspect of their everyday dress. Typically women are the only ones in the culture that really wear jewelry. They do not wear jewelry as a vanity statement piece they wear it to protect them. Afghan women usually wear jewelry based on what it means and what metal it is made out of. Sterling silver is one of the most popular metals to have because it means something very important. Sterling silver...
a. War on Terror - Afghanistan
a. War in Afghanistan – Lunch with the Taliban
a. The Economist.
a. This article talks about the state of affairs in Afghanistan. The Taliban is still very much around even though they are not in control of the government. The government is led by President Hamid Karzai, who is said to be very corrupt. There are also the forces of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and the US forces led by Commanding General David Petraeus. The Taliban is on one side, and on the other side are the government and the other forces. Each side seems to claim they have made headway and the other side is being dismissed as irrelevant. The Taliban is trying to spread the teachings of strict Islamic law and will not accept any government that is seen as led by foreigners. President Karzai is trying to walk a thin line between extremism and moderation. But he is riddled with accusations of corruption. The outside forces of the US and NATO are trying to bring the various tribes, the government, and Taliban leaders to the table, to negotiate terms for a peaceful democratic government. When the Taliban does not like what is happening in Afghanistan, they resort to arbitrarily imposing strict Islamic law in their areas of operation. They are extremely well-trained, have a huge bank of young recruits, with many more...
The Buzkashi Tooi
The book “Buzkashi” Game in Power in Afghanistan is written by G. Whitney Azoy is introducing the Buzkashi game in Afghanistan in details, but in the third chapter of this book which is about the the Buzkashi Tooi, he describes that how this game is held in the local places. First he explains the word Tooi, rite of passage, and marriage. Then he argues that the buzkashi tooi is a Khan’s activities. According to him, Khans are those who have some kind of influence on the people of the village. He writes that the Buzkashi game has three major sections, preparation, festivities, and after math. As he writes Preparation to the Buzkashi Tooi is one of the problematic parts of the Buzkashi Tooi. It concern with material resources, such as the procurement of goods necessary, the cooking of foods, and readying the guest houses. Tooi-wala, who is the festival responsible, involves some consideration, such as himself, his closest associates, his relatives, and the hosts. These responsible people are mostly the Khans. Because the Khans are related to more people, so they need to spend more money to have a successful Tooi. They need to invite more people from far distance places. These festivals mostly occur in the Khan’s son’s marriage, because the Khan is the leader a village so hundreds of people are invited. In such festivals, Buzkashi happens, which raise the name of the Tooi-Wala. While festivities begin with...
When someone asks us about a country we know nothing or little about, the majority of
us would say the first thing that pops up into our heads that has been planted there by the
news,movies or documentaries about that country. We assume the things we are shown about
places are all facts and that these countries are really how they are portrayed on these popular
media sources. In a brief field study, when asked about the country of Afgahnistan some
mentioned they percieved Afgahnistan as a totalitarian country which oppressed woman and
robs kids of there childhood and innocence by planting hate in there hearts at an early age. In
one group interview, Most said they saw Afgahnistan as a war stricken country,full of religious
fanatics with ak-47s, a place with illiterate people who are stuck in a past time frame. When
asked about Afgahnistan one interviewee said it was a place with "no religious rights, where you
have no choice but to be muslim". Another interviewee was asked to state his personal view on
Afgahnistan, he argued "The majority of the people hate americans and the only justice they
know is street justice".
What would you respond to someone who asked you to define Geopolitics and popular
geopolitics? Geoplolitics can be understood as the way leaders of countries act towards
eachother for there own gains. For example if a country sees another country has something
they want they try to stay on good terms with that country...
...Afghanistan is a country where survival is a fight. Poverty, diseases, poor health care, and
starvation is an everyday struggle in daily life. If you are an Afghan woman these issues
are compounded by the fact that women are seen as being objects. Women are not worth as
much as a man. Women in Afghanistan are seen as inferior. Women can be put to death for the
slightest insinuation of an insult to a man. These are just a few of the issues that the women and
girls of Afghanistan face every day. The sad fact of the matter is that a lot of the hate and
violence comes from male family members. Honor killings are allowed in Afghanistan.
A woman does not even have to do anything wrong to be killed. If there is any inclination that
the woman has embarrassed her family, she can be killed. Women in Afghanistan are very rarely
given medical treatment. There are so many obstacles that Afghan women face that the majority
of women here in the United States cannot even imagine. I know I cannot imagine being set
aside just because I could not bear a son or children. I do not want to even try to think of the
violence that these women face if they show any sign of disrespect. Afghan women are seen as
mindless broodmares. Not all men see them this way but the majority of the male population does.
Many men say that their religion teaches that women are not as smart as men and those women
...Post-war Afghan Economy
How National is the National Development Framework
By SIBA SANKAR MOHANTY
Afghanistan occupies a central significance in South Asia owing to its geo-strategic location and natural resources-but is considered as one among the poorest countries in the world. Being a small, land locked and poor country with around 85 percent of its population depending on agriculture, and its socio-economic structure being influenced in every respect by external forces for more than twenty years, Afghanistan really needs a proper policy framework- with, the authorities in Afghanistan accountable to the common people, for the policies and their implementation, more so when the government does not have a clear mandate from the common people.
Agriculture contributes around 53 percent of the country's annual GDP. Around 28 percent of the country's GDP comes from light industry, 8 percent from the trade (of which around 87 percent is unaccounted re-exports) and around 6 percent from the construction. The unaccounted and underground trade might have a much bigger share keeping in mind the high value and illegal narcotics trade and alleged trade of small arms in Afghanistan.
The devastating drought which carried on from 1999 till 2001, resulted in almost 50 percent decline of agricultural production and more than 60 percent depletion of live stock due to a change in consumption pattern and...
Following the September 11 terror attacks, the U.S. sent thousands of troops to Afghanistan to pursue the al Qaeda terrorists who plotted the terror attacks. Almost 10 years ago, the U.S. sent troops to the Central Asian country in order to protect the U.S. after Osama Bin Laden declared war on the United States. Within a year of entering into the country, the U.S. shifted its focus fromAfghanistan to Iraq, which led to the resurgence of the Taliban. Currently, the U.S., under the Obama administration, has developed a new strategic plan in which troops are “to disrupt, dismantle and defeat al Qaeda in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and to prevent their return to either country in the future (Afghanistan, 672).” Pakistan, the nuclear armed and western bordering country to Afghanistan, has become a sanctuary for Taliban and al Qaeda, which is why the U.S. has a concentration of troops on the border of the two countries. The U.S. needs to protect the border in order to ensure that the nuclear arms of Pakistan do not fall into the hands of the Taliban and al Qaeda.
The United States faces many problems in the current war with terrorist forces. The increase of causalities, the increase of fanatical Taliban and al Qaeda troops, the lack of Afghan National Army forces to help with the fighting, and the ever looming threat of nuclear...
...Afghanistan: Food and Music
Vanesa, Janelle and Rebecca
The changing climate of Afghanistan allows for a variety of crops to grow throughout the seasons.
Fresh yogurt, coriander, garlic, onions, spring onion, tomatoes, potatoes, and fruit are widely available in most parts of Afghanistan and are used in preparing foods. Both fresh and dried fruits and vegetables, form an important part of the Afghan diet, especially in the rural areas.Afghanistan produces a variety of exceptional fruits primarily, grapes, pomegranates, apricots, berries, and plums. These fruits are Afghanistan's main food exports.
Herbs and spices used in Afghan cuisine include mint, saffron, coriander, cilantro, cardamom, and black pepper.
Lamb and chicken are the favored meats. Afghan cuisine emphasizes well-balanced, contrasting tastes and food is neither spicy nor bland.
Kabuli Pulao (steamed rice with chops of raisin and carrots, often served with lamb but can also be served with meat, vegetables or beans)
Khameerbob (pasta prepared for special occasions)
Kababs (skewed meat chops, often served with naan)
Korma (Fried onions with meat, vegetables and spices added to them)
Noqul (sugar covered almonds with a hint of cardamom)
Mantu (steamed dumplings fattened with minced onion beef)
Shorma (soups made of a variety of ingredients)
Bread (naan) (Naan, Obi Naan and Lavish)
Chai Tea (green or black...