Cost of War on Terror for Pakistan Economy
The conclusion was that the War not only caused serious damage to the economy, but also to the social fabrics of Pakistan. Obviously, continuity of War will continue to bleed the economy and society of Pakistan. At the start of the War, the cost of it to Pakistan was estimated at $ 2.669 billion in fiscal year 2001-02. This calculation was based on the assumptions that: (i) The War in Afghanistan that begun on October 7, 2001 will end swiftly by December 2001: (ii) normalcy will resume from January 2002; (iii) the Taliban government will be ousted and some low intensity fight will continue but life in Pakistan will remain normal; and (iv) the additional increase in freight cargo and war risk premium will be removed. The abovementioned assumptions were not materialized and instead the war on terror continued to gain momentum and became more precarious for the entire region in general and Pakistan in particular as it shifted to its settled areas to disrupt all kind of investment and economic activity. Pakistan became more insecure in its efforts to make the world a safer place to live. Pakistan continued to pay a heavy price in terms of both the economic and security terms. A large portion of its resources, both men and material are being consumed by this war for the last several years. The economy was subjected to enormous direct and indirect costs which continued to rise from $ 2.669 billion in 2001-02 to $ 13.6 billion by 2009-10, projected to rise to $ 17.8 billion in the current financial year (2010-11) and moving forward, the direct and indirect costs to the economy is most likely to rise further. The comparison of cost for 2001-02 and 2010-11 is given in Table-1 and the year-wise cost of war on terror is documented in Table-2:
Pakistan’s economy is under pressure of the War on Terror intensifying for last four years in Afghanistan. Since 2006, the War has spread like a contagion into...
...Entangled Pakistan and War on Terror
At eight forty-six Flight eleven crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Centre (Board). Sixteen minutes later Flight number, one seventy-five, impacted the South Tower (Board, George Washington University). American Airlines Flight seventy-seven dropped on the Pentagon at nine thirty-seven (Board, George Washington University ). On eleventh September 2001 two thousand nine hundred and seventy seven people died (Glazier). It marked the worst terrorist attack in the American history. The United States economy froze while the world still stood in shock. In those dramatic moments on twelfth September 2001, President George W Bush addressed the nation and declared America’s War on Terrorism (US declares War on Terror). What followed was a global campaign by American and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops against Taliban, who controlled Afghanistan and Al-Qaeda, the master mind behind the nine-elven plot. The military campaign was named “Operation Enduring Freedom”. The leader of Al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden was the key target of the United States. When the Afghan government refused to hand over, USA decided to invade Afghanistan (Channel).
On twenty-second September 2006, President Parvez Musharraf confided that United States threatened Pakistan. In an interview, Musharraf said "The intelligence director...
Pakistan was established in 1947 and since its inception; it has been surrounded by countless issues, some of which are confined to ill-formed/missing infrastructure, insufficient refined resources, barren or obsolete factories and technologies, the Kashmir controversy and other fronts also involving an ever-ready enemy to underscore its efforts towards progress. Despite being rich in natural resources, Pakistan has so far been a developing country with limited development in every era due to the economic problems it has been facing. In the following text we will shed light on some of the major problems faced by Pakistan as a country, today.
Following are some of the important factors that are disturbing Pakistan’s Economy:
• Corruption & Political Instability
• Over Population, Unemployment & Inflation
• International Interference
• And The Recent Floods
ECONOMY HISTORY OF PAKISTAN
First five decades
When it gained independence in 1947 from UK. Pakistan's average economic growth rate since independence has been higher than the average growth rate of the world economy during the period. Average annual real GDP growth rates were 6.8% in the 1960s, 4.8% in the 1970s, and 6.5% in the 1980s. Average annual growth fell to 4.6% in the 1990s with significantly lower growth...
Sections of a proposal/dissertation
Abstract (200-250 words, single paragraph, left hand justified)
Statement of authorship
I, _________________________declare that this dissertation is entirely my own words unless otherwise indicated in the text. Further, this work, in parts or whole, has not previously been presented or examination at this or any other educational institution. Signature, Date.
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of figures (graphs)
List of Illustrations (photographs, maps etc)
List of Appendices
Chapter 1 Introduction
1. Background to the Study
2. Statement of the Problem
3. Aims and Objectives of the Study
4. Research Questions
Research hypotheses – maybe here depends on the supervisor)
5. Significance of the Study
(for proposal only 1.6 Assumptions & Delimitations of the Study)
6. Definition of Terms
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Research Hypotheses (after entire lit rev – immediately before Chp 3)
NOTE: for dissertations using document analysis Chp 3 Methodology becomes Chapter 2 and the dissertation progresses from there.
Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Research Design & Rationale
3.2 Research Site
Describe location/s with a salient detail; all identifying information removed/disguised.
3.3 Population & Sampling Method
Population delimited, delineated & defined
3.4 Sample & Participants (for proposal use “predicted sample” & omit participants)
Sample delimited, delineated &...
...independence America has fought twelve major wars which have cause a lot of damage to the worls and loss of uncountable human life. It is the policy of America to treat those people as terrorist that can pose a threat to the dominating power of USA. There are recent example behind the world that what America has done with Iraq, Afghanistan and then Pakistan. The United States uses the excuse of defending world peace as a reason to go to war. In hindsight, it can be deduced that all the major wars fought by the United States in the last one hundred years have involved some sort of trickery on the part of the United States to go to war. It is more than a coincidence that before every major war, there has been some sort of incident undermining the United States. The United States responded by retaliating against the provocative state and went to war. While the U.S may not be the instigator of peace there are numerous actions by the U.S that has increased terrorism. These actions include America’s role in the Iran Iraq war of the 80s, the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq and the increasing drone attacks and terrorism in Pakistan.
The war between Iraq and Iran was one of the great human tragedies of recent Middle Eastern...
...War on terrorism, is that right strategy?
Table of Contents
War on terrorism’ what is that
Budget on war on terror
Since September 11, the world has been changed. It did not a matter for just Americans, but also it became a matter to the world. American government announced a War on terrorism and its allies engaged in that plan. After 7 years, they still fight against terrorism but now we do not know what the war on terrorism and what that is for. Every single time when we watching TV, most victims are American or its allies’ soldier or citizen of Afghanistan or Iraq. Terrorists still are out of the surrounding area and they are planning another attack. I’ll look for the way of how we are going to plan for fight against terrorists and effectiveness of war on terror to explore whether it is working or not. And it needs to be defined why the world choose ‘war on terror’ option as a counterterrorism from several options. There have been huge incidents happened by terrorist but most of them were very small damaged to the public. They can choose another options such as hiring more police officers or spend more money on the analyze them. I will explore what impact ‘war on terrorism’ has brought to...
...The War on Terror
Afghanistan and Iraq
• To understand the concept of the ‘War on Terror’.
• To analyse speeches given by former President Bush and Prime
• To evaluate America role in the post-Cold War era.
Who is America’s Enemy?
• By yourself, create a list of nations you think are considered enemies
of the United States of America in the post-Cold War era (1991-2004).
Who are terrorists?
• In pairs/small groups draw your idea of what a terrorist looks like.
• British Soldiers shot 26 unarmed Irish civilians in 1972 during a
protest. 14 were killed.
• The IRA (Irish Republican Army) bombed numerous locations across
the British Isles for the best part of the 1970s and 1980s.
• Crimes committed against Irish citizens.
• Ku Klux Klan have committed countless acts of terrorist activities
against minorities in America.
• In pairs, discuss those two speeches
• What did you think of them?
• Was there anything you disagreed/agreed with?
So what is the War on Terror?
• It relates to the international military campaigns that occur after 11
September 2001 terrorist attacks.
• Spearheaded by the United States it also included both NATO and
non-NATO nations in actions to destroy al-Qaeda and other militant
World Politics 20
October 16, 2011
War on Terror
September 11, 2001, already ten years ago but the events are as vivid as the day it occurred. I was eight years old, and a third grader not knowing anything that happened in the “outside” world. As a little girl I did not realize that the event that happened would change or lives forever.
As the years progressed my fear of the terrorists grew. The so called “War on Terror” increased the fear of all Americans and propaganda grew day by day. Racism came back into the picture against all those who looked like a typical middle eastern, and accusations of terrorist attacks occurred against those who were innocent and naïve. Of course what we feared was another attack that could easily destroy our lives in a second. I always heard stories about the Cold War and Nazi Germany diminishing lives of innocent people without a feeling of regret. As a child fearing the worst, I felt as if the terrorists would destroy us with a nuclear bomb or even invade our country and put us all into concentration camps. Hearing the worst about people from the Middle East at such a young age puts fear in a child’s mind and seeing anyone who was obviously foreign or who just looked “weird” or “strange” was a terrorist in my mind. Once the United States invaded Afghanistan, propaganda really made an impact on the American culture, our patriotism...
...THIS IS OUR WAR!
“We must not harbour any doubts, it is Pakistan’s war”, says Gen. Kayani
It is our history that whenever is finally united on something, a propaganda is produced to create confusion. Ever since the restoration of democratic system in Pakistan, a debate has been started on the topic that “Is war on terror our war or not?” The whole nation was supporting the Pakistan army until our beloved political parties like Pakistan Muslim League (N), Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf, Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F) and Jamaat-e-Islami decided to come up with mix-up statements like “This is America’s war” or “We were forced into joining this war”. These parties act like the political wing of Tehreek-e-Taliban and are constantly trying to manipulate the minds of people by forcing them to believe that if Pakistan stops supporting USA and NATO Forces in this war against terror, the lives of the innocent Pakistani people will be saved and there will be no more bombings and killings in the country. If people really believe that this is not our war and peace will find its way back into the country once we withdraw from it then they are the biggest fools.
Patricia Briggs said in Dragon Bones, “Stupidity will kill you more surely than your opponent's blade”
I am afraid the future...