Compliance of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) in Ethiopia with the Paris Principles By: Abraham Ayalew
The establishment of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission was necessitated as a result of the provisions of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Constitution. The inclusion in the Constitution of the establishment of the Commission may, inter alia, be a result of the World Conference on Human Rights which was conducted a year before the adoption of the Constitution. As a “National Institution” its constituent document is expected to take in to consideration the international movement and accepted standards guiding the establishment of such institutions. One important document in this regard is the Principles relating to the Status of National Institutions, also known as the Paris Principles, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations under Resolution 48/144 of 20th December 1993. The Paris Principles has become an international standard against which the level of operation and efficacy of a national institution is measured worldwide. For example, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights bestows a special observer status on a national institution operating in Africa based on its conformity to the provisions in this document. What is more, the Sub Committee on Accreditation of the International Coordinating Committee has a mandate to analyze applications for accreditation from national human rights institutions on the basis of its compliance with the Paris Principles. It is for these reasons that any study involving evaluation of national institutions with the Paris Principles is of utmost importance. In this regard, the very purpose of this article is to assess whether or not the establishing law of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission complies with the Paris Principles. In doing so after describing the Paris Principles and National Institutions; establishment, independence and pluralism and mandate and composition of the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission are dealt vis-à-vis the principles. Within these topics an attempt is made to dissect all the provisions of the Commission in comparison to the main tenets of the principles. Thus the discussion in this article is principally limited to analyzing the legislation. The Paris Principles
In 1991 a conference was held in Paris where representatives of national human rights institutions from all over the world met to define the salient features in any new or existing national human rights institution. The conference was concluded after designing the role and functions, mandates and independence of national human rights institutions; the main role of which revolves around the promotion and protection of human rights. The draft document was later adopted by the UN General Assembly. This was followed by a call for the establishment of national human rights institutions in countries where there was none at the World Conference for Human Rights held in 1993. It was stated that the conference “encourages the establishment and strengthening of national institutions, having regard to the Principles relating to the status of national institutions and recognizing that it is the right of each State to choose the framework which is best suited to its particular needs at the national level.” The Paris Principles, though not binding, have nowadays achieved a worldwide acceptance in guiding the work and functions of national human rights institutions. It is as a result of this that the International Coordination Committee (hereinafter the ICC) for national human rights institutions that accredits national human rights institutions bases its assessment predominantly on it. The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights follows suit in this regard to grant special observer status to any African national institution established in Africa functioning according to internationally recognized norms and standards specifically...
...exterminated by Hitler’s Nazi regime, the Universal Declaration of HumanRights was adopted and proclaimed on December 10th 1948 to prevent a another holocaust and to achieve a universal standard of humanrights. Over the last sixty years various regional and international treaties and conventions have been adopted to protect and advance humanrights towards universality. Furthermore, it equally important to mention that there has been a western dominated movement to universalise humanrights. Nevertheless, Universal Human remains a contentious issue of debate among intellectual and policy circles. The purpose of this essay is to outline a few of the prominent issues and problems that are associated with the concept of Universal humanrights.
“All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” (UDHR. 1948. P.2) Humanrights in its contemporary perception is a fairly recent concept. In fact the Universal Declaration of HumanRights which is often cited as the corner stone of humanrights only came into force following World War II and the most “systematic and blatant” violation of humanrights in record history that was the Holocaust...
We will deal with each of these in turn, with reference to international legal instruments and bodies. We will observe first of all how the rights of individuals, although falling outside the province of international law as it was conceived in the1600s, began to seep into the framework of international legal rules over the centuries, eventually coming to prominence during the 'humanrights era' that followed the end of the Second World War. We will consider secondly the various mechanisms that have been put in place by the international community in order to deal with the enforcement and observance of individual rights enshrined in international legal instruments. Lastly, we will critically assess the claim that questions about individual rights should be the sole concern of domestic legal systems.
The scholars who laid the intellectual foundations of international law in the Western world, like Hugo Grotius (1625) and John Locke (1690), all stressed in their writings that legal systems, be they domestic or international, were founded in natural law and commonly accepted standards of (Christian) morality. It may seem surprising, therefore, that for centuries the rights of individuals played no significant role in the framework of international law. International law, as the name suggests, was the body of legal rules governing the relations...
The Charter of the United Nations requires that all member states “promote and encourage respect for humanrights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion”. In order to provide a common understanding of these rights, the Universal Declaration of HumanRights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. In simple language, it describes the rights shared by all human beings, and sets “a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations”.
In the years since, the principles of the Universal Declaration have been elaborated and given greater legal force through the negotiation of a series of international treaties, notably the:
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Convention Against Torture
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Convention on the Rights of the Child
However, there remained a number of disagreements between countries, notably about the relative importance of different types of rights.
In 1993, the nations of the world came together in Vienna to reaffirm...
...HumanRights | |
Submitted to: Ms. Padmaja | Subject: Contemporary issues |
HumanRights – Evolution and Significance (UDHR, CEDAW, CRC, DRD)
Sujith Sudhakaran ………………..27
Nishad Neelambaran ………………..28
Dhanya Balakrishnan ………………...64
Pooja Nair ………………..73
Abhi Varrier ………………113
S.K. Somaiya College of Arts, Science & Commerce
This is to certify that the below given assignment of
is complete and submitted as per schedule to
On the topic
Signature Signature Signature
(Principal) (Head of dept.) (Prof.In charge)
We owe a great many thanks to great many people who helped and supported us during the writing of this project.
Our deepest thanks to our Professor Padmaja, the guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of ours with attention and care.
We express our thanks to the Principal of S.K.Somaiya College, Mrs.Sangita Kohli, for extending her support.
We would also like to thank our Institution and faculty members without whom this project would have been distant reality. We also extend our heartfelt thanks to our family members and well-wishers.
Content | Page Number |
Introduction | 4 |
History | 5 |...
...Declaration of HumanRights
Article XXVI: Right to Education
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights was drafted in 1948 and one of the articles, article XXVI deals with protection of the fundamental rights, right to education:
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their
The right to education is a universal right and is recognized as a humanright. It includes the right to free, non biased and non political primary education for everyone, to make secondary education at least accessible...
SB 1070 and Immigration
In this Article I will argue that Arizona Law SB 1070 is a violation of International humanrights, it discriminates against the basis of race and skin color. I will demonstrate this argument by discussing history of immigration, of SB 1070, SB1070 rules, and the impact on citizens and undocumented persons. This will demonstrate a very detailed Article on how SB 1070 works and the history on immigration leading up to this law SB 1070. But before SB 1070 was passed there were some laws that were very similar to it. For example Bill HB 2479 was passed in Pennsylvania May 5 2010 and was basically to discourage undocumented migrants from coming into the United States. Then there was prop 187 that was passed in California, which made it illegal for undocumented migrants to use health care, education system, and other state social services. It is also thought that SB 1070 only targets Mexican immigrants but it also targets immigrants from Central America even though those Central American immigrants only make up 10% of United States immigrants. SB1070 targets mostly Mexican American Latinos based on the color of their skin. This law has caused harassment for hundreds of Thousands of Mexican Latinos, from a simple traffic stop or other minor offenses Officers have detained approximately 380,000 Mexican Americans and have deported 387,000 immigrants here in the United States without proof of valid citizenship.
...In measuring the extent to which the European regional approach to humanrights protection offers advantages over the United Nations international approach, the various mechanisms contained within both systems must be compared and analysed. An explanation of the various international treaties and the drafting of the European Convention will require some consideration in order to assess the overall effectiveness of the machinery’s established under both systems for the protection of humanrights. Particular reference will be made to the right not to be subjected to ‘torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’ who’s universal condemnation stems back to the impunity for horrific crimes against humanity committed during the First and Second World War thus prompting in 1945, the first formal recognition of the importance of protecting humanrights in the international order through the United Nations Charter and the Nuremberg Charter.
The United Nations Charter sets out its purposes as “promoting and encouraging respect for all humanrights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion”’ and although the declarations are no more than aspirational, they support principles of liberty and individual freedoms that have subsequently formed the content of specific...
What are HumanRights
What are humanrights?
Humanrights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our humanrights without discrimination. T hese rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universal humanrights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International humanrights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect humanrights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
Universal and inalienable
T he principle of universality of humanrights is the cornerstone of international humanrights law. T his principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on HumanRights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international humanrights...