This school is characterized by the formation of strategy as an open process of influence, which puts the emphasis on the use of power and politics in the negotiation. The formation of strategy depends on the power and policy, internal and external. As a result, they tend to be emerging. There are two elements of this SoT: “Micro” and “Macro”. The micro elements deal with internal political games and the macro elements relate to those who play the organization. The "micro" is power in action; it sees strategy as a game within the organization. The “macro” reflects the interdependence between the Organization and its environment. It discusses the ways in which the organization promotes their own well-being, through control or cooperation.
“Of all the descriptive schools, the learning school grew into a veritable wave and challenged the always dominant prescriptive schools” (Mintzberg et al, 1998). According to this school, strategies emerge as people come to learn about a situation as well as their organization’s capability of dealing with it. This SoT began with the publication of “The Science of Muddling Through” (Lindblom, 1959). Lindblom suggested that the design of public policies was not a neat controlled process but a messy one, whereby officials try to manage a world they know is too complex for them. However, James B. Quinn, with “Strategies for Change: Logical Incrementalism” gave the actual kick-off to this SoT. According to Lindblom only 10% of the conceived strategies are implemented. The problem is the split between formulation and implementation. For a strategy to be effective there has to be a sum of small actions and individual decisions. In other words, individuals contribute to the strategic process from all positions in the organization. In disjointed Incrementalism by Lindblom, decisions are made to solve problems rather than to exploit opportunities, without the slightest attention to the final objectives or the connection with the rest of the decisions. There is no central authority that coordinates the mutual adjustments. Whereas logical Incrementalism by Quinn suggests that organizations see the strategy as an integrated approach. “The real strategy evolves as the internal decision-making and external facts converge to create a new consensus to act, widely shared by the members of the management team" (Quinn, 1980). He defined it as a continuous and dynamic process.
There are two main strategic tools, which fall under from Power SoT. One of these is Force Field Analysis proposed by Lewin (1947). According to this tool there are two forces that drive change in a business, the Driving Forces and the Restraining Forces. The Driving Forces push and promote change e.g. executive mandate, customer demand and increased efficiency whereas the Restraining forces try to prevent change from happening which can be in the form of fear, lack of training and incentives. The main criticism of this theory is that the method does not have enough sophistication or complexity to measure the dynamic forces that affect a business (Cronshaw, 2008).
The second strategic tool is proposed by Kleiner (1996), called the Core Group Theory. The Core Group Theory looks at leader-member dynamic within a firm. In his theory, Kleiner argues that the customers along with employee’s satisfaction are considered to be secondary to the ‘core group’ (top executives) and how some core groups can be ‘parasitic’ to a firm based of the willingness of organizational members to comply. The main weakness observed is similar to that of the Force Field Analysis, that is this theory has not quite ‘developed thematically’, the theory does not base itself on measurement (Bokeno, 2003). The main criticisms observed in the tools for the Power school both fall under the inability to measure, this could be because of the Power School focuses on social...
English II 4th Hour
February 25, 2014
School Choice And Its Downfall On Education
School choice is a rising issue in Louisiana, and across the nation. Everyday, thousands of children attend a failing school, many of which have become dangerous and corrupt. Lawmakers and educational organizations site school choice for low income families as a solution for not only fixing failingschools, but getting children into the jobs of the future through higher education. This solution is too simple and political to work. School choice is a bad policy that weakens school and lowers overall school scores and performance.
In this school choice program, the vouchers for government paid tuition to a private school, or the transfer to another public school would be exclusively offered to low income families. This would then send poor students from failing schools to high scoring public or private school. First off, these well scoring schools will become crowded and over attended. A cap could be placed on the number of voucher students these schools could take, but that would defeat the purpose of the bill. Secondly, with more students coming from the high amount of failing schools Louisiana has, the student to teacher ration will...
...is driven away by students throughout summer break? Lately, the Union City Board of Education has been considering that it may be necessary to switch from the traditional school year to having year round school in order to properly educate the students in this area. In my personal opinion, I most likely agree with the Union City Board of Education do to the following reasons. First of all, more time would be spent on teaching new material in opposed to reviewing old material because of summer loss. In addition, with a 15-day break after 45 days of instruction students are able to recover and refresh. Third of all, it eliminates the need for summer enrichment programs families may not be able to afford. Clearly, these reasons should be carefully considered.
To begin with, more time is spent on teaching new material in opposed to reviewing old material because of summer loss. Usually with year round school, teachers have sufficient time to teach everything that has to be covered for the following school year. Why do students lack of knowledge at the beginning of the school year? When students are off to there two-month summer break they automatically forget the majority of lessons they learned the previous year. A 1994 study of three year-round California elementary schools showed that each of the three schools demonstrated significant achievement gains for its highly targeted...
...laptop that contains an exact copy of all my textbooks. I imagine the ease of being able to pull out my fully typed lap report or essay and being able to send it to the teacher via e-mail. Thankfully, schools have been transitioning into a more technological era and are taking the steps necessary to implement technology into the classroom. There are many aspects a school has to consider when making this technological leap, but the most important factors by far are the engagement of the students, the ease of the technology in the classroom, and the relationship between the teacher and the student.
While some may argue that technology can decrease the engagement of the students and “may seriously mess up children’s informational metabolism” (Source C), if used in the right environment and context, technology can, in fact, engage students even more. When used in an educational way, a laptop or tablet can be exactly what a student needs to get their undivided attention. Kids already live in a day and age where the internet and its mountains of information are available at the touch of a finger. When they go to school and are forced to use traditional dictionaries and encyclopedias, it’s like being transported back to the Stone Age. Why not build
that Empire High School in Arizona is making “the laptops the key ingredient of the cake”. By adjusting school to the student’s needs, you can...
Jews Escape from Nazi Imprisonment BY Kennedi Koves
12763502660015Many Jews were released from Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. Thousands of Jews ran from the Buchenwald Camp as the resistance and the American army fought the Nazis - under the authority of Adolf Hitler. There are few Jewish survivors. Survivor Val Ginsburg sent a letter to Hírek Expert explaining his experience during the Holocaust. “When Hitler invaded Lithuania, my family chose to stay rather than flee, as we thought that direction under him would be better than our communist town. I was put to work as a slave laborer in the ghettos of Kaunas. All of my family was executed and I am the only one left. It is truly devastating.” Yesterday, April 10th, Jews planned to evacuate the premises, and the Buchenwald Camp would be liquidated. This took place at 10 o’clock am, and just minutes after, the first grenades and gunshots sounded, and the underground resistance started to rebel. Jews were told that they were to go towards the Appelplatz, as they were departing from the Buchenwald camp. This was when and where the underground resistance struck first. This rebellion occurred because certain people were opposed to the way the Jews were being treated, so they made a plan to annihilate the people who treated them like they didn’t want to be treated. This rebellion occurred because the resistance planned the rebellion. The American tanks arrived with armed men, guns, and...
...what da hell let me sign up man I just want essays. Rainy day This year the summer season was unduly long and extremely hot. It was July, the schools had reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life unbearable. Going to the school, studying in the class or playing on the ground all seemed to be a punishment. One morning, clouds .Rain is a great blessing after the summer heat. In India the scorching heat of the summer months of May and June causes great suffering to animal and plant-life alike. The Earth gets parched and cracked at places. Hot winds blow, animals wander is search of drinking water and no birds sing. Then fol.Introduction After the unbearable heat of the summer season, people welcome the rainy season. The rain falls. The temperature comes down. It is a great relief. The sky on a rainy day The sky is overcast with clouds. The sun is not visible. Sometimes the day becomes dark. There are occasional flaps... .Introduction After the unbearable heat of the summer season, people welcome the rainy season. The rain falls. The temperature comes down. It is a great relief. The sky on a rainy day The sky is overcast with clouds. The sun is not visible. Sometimes the day becomes dark. There are occasional flaps... .Rainy Day Rainy day This year the summer season was unduly long and extremely hot. It was July, the schools had reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life...
...Holden drops out of many schools, and fails almost all of his classes. His attitude regarding his worsening situation is unenthusiastic and careless. This is displayed when he says “I forgot to tell you about that. They kicked me out. I wasn’t supposed to come back after Christmas vacation, on account of I was flunking four subjects and not applying myself at all” (Salinger, 4). Holden was later confronted about his lack of motivation by his teacher, who said, “I flunked you in history because you knew absolutely nothing” (Salinger, 10). Holden’s negligence concerning school is typical of a rebelling teenager. Holden’s rebellion is further demonstrated in the novel when he runs away from Pencey Prep and has no specific goal ahead of him, saying “… I decided I’d take a room in a hotel in New York – some very inexpensive hotel and all – and just take it easy till Wednesday” (Salinger, 51). Holden’s unclear plan presented his vague sense of responsibility and careless nature. This coupled with the irresponsible behaviour of drinking and employing prostitutes shows that Holden is tremendously defiant. “I ordered a scotch and soda, and told him not to mix it – fast as hell, because if you hem and haw, they think you’re under twenty-one and won’t sell any intoxicating liquor” were Holden’s thoughts after he bought a drink illegally (Salinger, 69). The key theme of teenage rebellion was conveyed in The Catcher in the Rye, through Holden’s disregard...
... which can demonstrate the limited and confined life that
Lureen is allowing herself to live. Also, “sawdust and shavings ankledeep on the floor, ceiling
slats dangling free” (Birdsell 370) show the very messy, carelessness, and immobility of her
character. Lastly, a “lone light bulb suspended by a single twined wire” (Birdsell 370) shows
Lureen’s last little bit of enlightening alteration that can occur in her life. These descriptions
ultimately impose a visual image to be obtained by the reader as very disordered and
unorganized. The way Lureen describes her life at the moment allows the reader to make a
parallel between her apartment and herself. She describes her life as “between jobs, waiting
for the world to end” (Birdsell 372) and “[she] left school…” (Birdsell 370). The broken, untidy
apartment shows Lureen’s disorganized life, and how her life needs restoration. As opposed
to Lureen, while Reta is on her book tour, she stays in a very extravagant hotel. She depicts
every detail, saying “a bedroom, two full baths, a very wide bed, and more sofas than I would
have time to sit on in my short stay” (Shields 391), which reflects upon her wealthy and
privileged life. This contrasts the way Lureen’s apartment looks and therefore their lives.
Then, Reta says “and a coffee table consisting of a sheet of glass posed on three immense
faux books” (Shields 391). This aspect of the hotel reveals her character’s life as very definite ...
Chinese Cinderella, Sink or Swim
Chinese Cinderella written by Adeline Yen Mah, is regarding a young girl which is considered to be the cause of her mother’s death and is identified as bad luck. After the death of her mother, a year later her father remarries a French woman, who Adeline and her siblings call Niang – meaning stepmother. Niang has two children which are now Adeline’s stepbrother/sister. Niang’s children are always favoured and receive the best of everything. Adeline struggles through life up to the age of fourteen when she proves to her family that she is more than what meets the eye, and proves to them that she is equal to everyone else, and tries her hardest so that she can be accepted for who she is. Sink or Swim written by Ron Bunney, tells the story of a boy named Bazza at the age of 15/16 who runs away from home and makes his own way in life. While on this adventure, he comes across a fisherman named Earl who provides him with hospitality and gives him a job as a ‘decky’. The boys’ bond becomes closer and they develop into good friends. In my essay, I am going to discuss the similarities between both texts. The topics I am going to discuss within my essay are loneliness, feeling of being unwanted and self - esteem.
Loneliness is a feeling of isolation, which is expressed by many unwanted children. This feeling is demonstrated in both texts by the two main characters; Adeline...