Transcript of guided discovery with a client suffering from social anxiety
Goal of this section was to help the client explore the origins of their social anxiety
Therapist. So now that we have a good description of the problem I think it might be useful to explore how it developed and how we can begin to move on. What do you think?
Client. That sounds sensible but I've been like this as long as I can remember so I don't think I know how it began.
Therapist. That's okay let's just start and see what we can discover?
Therapist. In CBT we always start with the situation as it is in the here and now. So can you give me a resent example of when you felt anxious?
Client. Well just yesterday I had a typical scenario, I was attending a meeting at work and a colleague put me on the spot by asking about one of my accounts, I was quite relaxed in the meeting until that happens because we weren't supposed to be dealing with my accounts the meeting was about new accounts and I don't have any at the moment.
Therapist.: So you were at the meeting quite comfortable and someone "put you on the spot" What do you mean by that?
Client: I don't like being on the spot, you know, the centre of attention with everyone looking at me.
Therapist: So when he put you on the spot what did you feel?
Client: Well all my usual symptoms, my heart gave a thump and I started to go red and sweat, my mind goes blank and all I can think of is how anxious I am and how stupid I look. It was only a meeting for god's sake it's ridiculous that I get so het up over these things.
Therapist: So typical fight or flight scenario. What do you think was the fear, the perceived threat?
Client: That I would look stupid. Like I don't know my job or that I'm an inarticulate idiot.
Therapist: Well you always sound articulate and intelligent in therapy, so do you think this is a real threat or just a false alarm?
Client: I know I am intelligent but I don't look it when I get anxious so I think it's a real threat. I'm sure some of my colleagues can see how anxious I am and think I'm a nervous wreck.
Therapist: So the threat is that colleagues will notice you're anxious what if they did?
Client: Well it doesn't look good does it? They're bound to think less of me if they can see I'm not confident, if I have no confidence in myself how can I expect anyone else to have confidence in me?
Therapist: Are you saying you have no confidence in yourself? How would that fit with what you said a minute ago that you know you’re intelligent and capable?
Client: Well I know I am but I don't look it.
Therapist: so how would you sum up the perceived threat in a way that acknowledges your strengths but expresses your fear?
Client: I suppose we could say that even though I know I'm good at what I do that I fear my colleagues will lose respect for me if they see how anxious I am.
Therapist: That sounds reasonable you know you are capable but fear what others might think if they notice your anxiety?
Client: Yes that about sums it up.
Therapist: So do you do anything to try and protect yourself from this fear?
Client: Yes half my time is spent watching out for situations that might put me on the spot.
Therapist: So, you constantly scan for situations that might put you on the spot? and if you see one? What do you do then?
Client: I'll try and avoid it but if I can't get out of it I'll do my best to make sure I can prepare for all contingencies and don't get caught out by anything I'm not prepared for.
Therapist: It sounds like a lot of effort?
Client: yes it is, I really feel drained sometimes trying to make sure I've thought of everything.
Therapist: So when you've thought of everything does that make you feel less anxious?
Client: Well not really you see I'm always worried that something will come up that I've not thought about. So I'm just as anxious.
...ASSIGNMENT 1 BEHAVIOURALTHERAPY.
1/ STATE HOW MANY OF THE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT SOCIETY MIGHT BE AVOIDED? (3).
1/ From a practical standpoint, Knowing how early experiences mould an individual make us wiser in the way we raise our children, many problems that confront society-aggression, alienation, suicide, and mental illness-could perhaps be averted if we better understood how parental behaviour and attitudes affect children, how some of these problems originate, and how they might be dealt with at an early age.
2/ HOW IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT DETERMINED? (2).
2/ Human developments are determined by a continuous interaction between heredity and environmental. At the moment of conception a remarkable number of personal characteristics are already determined by the genetic structure of the fertilised ovum.
Our genes programme our growing cells so that we develop into a person, rather than a fish, a bird, or a monkey. They decide our skin and hair colour, general body size, sex, and – to some extent – our intelligence and emotional temperament.
A/ WITH WHAT DO BIOLOGICAL PREDISPOSITIONS INTERACT?
B/ WHAT DO THEY DETERMINE? (4).
3/ Our experiences depend on the specific culture, social group, and family in which we are raised. Children from very deprived, families tend, on average, to be more aggressive than children from middle-class or upper-class backgrounds, but a child’s tendency...
...COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY
Cognitive behavioral therapy (or cognitive behavioral therapies or CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve problems concerning dysfunctional emotions, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure.[i] The title is used in diverse ways to designate behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and to refer to therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive research. There is empirical evidence that CBT is effective for the treatment of a variety of problems, including mood, anxiety, personality, eating, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders.[ii] Treatment is often manualized, with specific technique-driven brief, direct, and time-limited treatments for specific psychological disorders. CBT is used in individual therapy as well as group settings, and the techniques are often adapted for self-help applications.
Characteristics of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies:
1. Thoughts cause Feelings and Behaviors.
2. Brief and Time-Limited.
Average # of sessions = 16
3. Emphasis placed on current behavior.
4. CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the client.
Client role - define goals, express concerns, learn & implement learning
Therapist role - help client define goals, listen, teach, encourage.
5. Teaches the benefit of remaining calm or...
Cognitive Behavioural and related Therapies
the Treatment of
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
In this paper the therapies related to Cognitive BehaviouralTherapy (CBT) will be studied in order to determine the applicability thereof for the treatment (and prevention) of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PTSD will be summarised as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders edition 4 with revisions (DSM-IV-TR). The therapy models, their theory and techniques will be discussed. The therapies this paper has in scope are, CBT, Exposure therapy and it’s different related techniques, Stress Inoculation Training (SIT), and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR). Other augmenting therapies will be discussed as well. The application of these therapies will be researched in a literature review of clinical reviews and studies, in order to provide scientific - empirical evidence for the applicability of these therapies to treat PTSD.
Cognitive Behavioural and related Therapies for the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
This paper will focus on the Cognitive BehaviouralTherapy (CBT) and related...
...and Review of the Effectiveness of Early Intervention behaviouraltherapies for Children with Autism
Subject: PSS250 Developmental Psychology
Due date: 29th September
The AEIOU Foundation is a non-profit organisation that supports children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), across 15 centres in Queensland. The overall aim of the program is to provide early intervention to children with ASD, improving their ability to cope and reach their maximum potential.
To achieve this aim, the program focuses on creating tailored programs for each individual’s interests, abilities and support requirements with the support of multi-disciplinary teams, including early childhood teachers, speech and language pathologists, occupational therapists and music therapists to develop and nurture life skills and enhance independence and self-confidence. AEIOU believes early intervention programs are important for children with autism helping them develop skills in play, communication, relationships and functional behaviours.
The AEIOU Foundation offers part-time and full time education programs for children with autism aged two and half to five years. At the centre children have the opportunity to participate in structured large and small group activities, circle time and exploratory play options. The programs focus: information and planning, advice on the child’s developmental needs, multidisciplinary therapy to...
Cognitive BehaviouralTherapy CBT’s primary objective is to improve functioning and emotional well-being by identifying the beliefs, feelings, and behaviour associated with an individual’s complex traumatic history. These beliefs, feelings, and behaviours are revised during the course of therapy to meet the client’s desired outcome and positive life goals. Emphasis is on identifying and reducing symptoms, developing a strong therapist-client relationship, strengthening interpersonal relationship skills and process each traumatic memory.
Key Concepts in Cognitive-BehaviouralTherapy (CBT)
The cognitive component in the cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies refers to how people think about and create meaning about situations, symptoms and events in their lives and develop beliefs about themselves, others and the world. Cognitive therapy uses techniques to help people become more aware of how they reason, and the kinds of automatic thought that spring to mind and give meaning to things.
Cognitive interventions use a style of questioning to probe for peoples' meanings and use this to stimulate alternative viewpoints or ideas. This is called 'guideddiscovery', and involves exploring and reflecting on the style of reasoning and thinking, and possibilities to think differently and more...
...teaching needs to be improved; this improvement includes selection of appropriate and more effective teaching methodology.
Teaching and learning is a process that includes many variables. The variables interact as learners work towards their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behaviours and skills that add to their range of learning experiences. A teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction. Commonly used methods in technical education include Lecture method, Demonstration method, Project method, Guideddiscovery method e.t.c But this study will be narrowed to only Demonstration and GuidedDiscovery method.
Demonstration method is commonly used to teach operations in technical education this method helps the teacher to explain the steps involved in a lesson or an operation while teaching them(Oranu,1994). Demonstration involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments to conceptualize students knowledge.
Guideddiscovery is largely unstructured situational method of teaching whereby students are permitted to find solutions to problem on their own or at their own pace, often jointly in group activities under the guidance of the instructor. The student receives problems to solve, but the teacher provides hints and directions about how to solve the problem to...
...Cognitive behaviouraltherapy is a combination of behavioural strategies and cognitive therapy (Zayfert, 2006). Aaron T. Beck was the founder of cognitive behaviouraltherapy in 1963, initially his work focused on depression. The basic principles of cognitive behaviouraltherapy are people’s thoughts, emotions and behaviours and all work together in a unified system (Curwen.B, 2000). B. Curwen states:
“That thoughts can lead to emotions and behaviour; and that emotional disorders arise from negatively biased thinking (which lead to unhelpful emotions and behaviours); and that emotional disorders can be helped by changing such thinking” (Curwen.B, 2000).
Amy’s problems started with a ‘near-miss’ car accident which caused Amy to suffer Post traumatic stress disorder. Cognitive behaviouraltherapy is used to post traumatic stress disorder and its aim is to educate the client to think rationally about her life (Zayfert, C.2006). Post traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder which develops when a person is exposed to a traumatic experience, which would be classed as life threatening to others and themselves (Horner et al, 2002). Amy experienced a ‘near-miss’ car accident as a passenger, this caused Amy to suffer anxiety.
It’s important to provide help for post traumatic stress disorder sufferers to reduce anxiety...
Guided imagery therapy is a cognitive-behavioral technique in which a child is guided in imagining a relaxing scene or series of experiences.
Guided Imagery is similar to hypnosis and various relaxation strategies. Guided Imagery lies somewhere in the middle of a continuum consisting of standard relaxation techniques on one end of the spectrum and hypnosis on the other. As used by the author, guided imagery involves the child engaged in some sort of focused relaxation exercise followed by the use of visual imagery for the purpose of either direct or indirect problem-solving with the child. Guided Imagery brings two primary benefits to the play-therapy process. First, it can be used to help children gain a sense of mastery over both their bodies and their feelings, and secondarily, it can be used to augment generalization of other gains made in the play therapy by allowing children to use their imaginations to create hypothetical life situations in the play room so as to practice their newly acquired skills with the support of the therapist. Guided Imagery is thus really an elaborate form of role playing. While conventional role playing can be very effective, it is the use of Guided Imagery to augment mastery that is the focus of this discussion.