Research Paper in Earth Science
Submitted to: Ms. Ramon Faye Alicarte
Submitted by: Jirlie Mae Dianne Alonzo
Maureen Joy Bunyi
Lei Lanie Marie Cabela
Rhea Jane Lagnas
Weather modification, or cloud seeding, has long been recognized as a means to enhance existing water supplies. Cloud seeding had its beginnings in 1946 at the General Electric Research Laboratories in Schenectady, New York. Cloud seeding can assist nature in the formation of precipitation, with appropriate types and numbers of nuclei at the proper times and places. Cloud seeding projects have been carried out in over 20 countries. Projects are generally conducted either during the winter or summer months. While wintertime projects target the enhancement of mountain snow-pack within a watershed, summertime projects are aimed at enhancing precipitation and/or reducing damage from hail.
"Seeding" winter storm clouds over mountains is well established and understood. Clouds form as moist air is lifted and cooled during its passage across mountain ranges. Left to nature, many clouds are highly inefficient precipitators, retaining more than 90 percent of their moisture. By cloud seeding, the precipitation efficiency can be greatly improved. Generally, silver iodide is used in ground generators to produce artificial ice nuclei that form ice crystals. Spreading the nuclei via aircraft is also common. These crystals attract moisture from the surrounding air forming droplets that grow large enough to fall to the ground as snow. Some projects using ground-based silver iodide generators to seed winter storms over mountain areas in the western United States have operated continuously since 1950.
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1. Why is Cloud Seeding very important?
2. Why we need to do Cloud seeding?
...The Carnage of Just Speech
Section Eschenburg Thursday 9:00am
Topic B Aristophanes & Pericles
In Aristophanes’ play, “clouds”, there is a battle between the “old” and “new” way of going out about life. This can be seen through the “just” and “unjust” speech, whose argumentative outcomes dictate the way in which society should go about educating its citizens. The “unjust speech”, which is a heavy logical and manipulative approach to thinking about life (“new”), seems to subvert the “just speech”, which appears to rely on moral and mythical justification (“old”). Pericles, a prominent and influential Politian in Athens, has argued that democracy is the best form of government because it fairly produces the most educated and excellent citizens, through freedom to act as they please, which will eventually shape there soul into a great person (Warner 145). Thus, if citizens are allowed to wonder freely and be tolerated with respect by fellow citizens as Pericles describes, and if Socrates (a Greek philosopher) and the “thinkry” spread their “unjust speech” rhetoric, Pericles’s platform for greatness will not make the Athenians the most excellent and educated citizens. In fact it is going to make them into worse people, people who are going to fundamentally question the value of their institution. Ultimately, Aristophanes suggests that democracy cannot work in unison with “unjust speech”, which undermines...
...“Clouds in the sky look big and substantial, but in fact they are mere clumps of thin vapor—a fact that the new scientific advances were beginning to appreciate.”
* He was a comic playwright of the ancient Athens.
* Eleven of his 40 plays survived virtually complete.
* A realist and was against the sophist such as Socrates, Anaxagoras, Diogenes, Protagoras, Hippon, Korax, and Gorgias.
* The Father of Comedy and The Prince of Ancient Comedy
* It was originally produced at the City Dionysia in 423 BC and it was not well received, coming last of the three plays competing at the festival that year.
* It was revised between 420-417 BC and thereafter it was circulated in manuscript form.
* No copy of the original production survives, and scholarly analysis indicates that the revised version is an incomplete form of Old Comedy.
* This incompleteness, however, is not obvious in translations and modern performances.
* The Clouds can be considered not only the world's first extant 'comedy of ideas' but also a brilliant and successful example of that genre.
Note: In the fifth century BCE, around the time when Aristophanes wrote The Clouds, the first stirrings of what today would be considered "scientific theory" were being felt.
* Strepsiades is the anti-hero of...
Clouds vs. The Apology
In Aristophanes' Clouds and in Plato's Apology we see extensive fictional representations of the historical figure, Socrates, who left us no literary works under his own name. When comparing these two representations, readers often assume, as a result of the nature of the comedic genre, that Aristophanes' portrayal of Socrates is exaggerated and fallacious. On the other hand, Plato's account is often taken more seriously as a result of the philosophical genre and the respected reputation Plato has as wildly influential thinker in Western culture. Nevertheless, there are more congruencies between the two representations than one would initially think. I'll discuss some similarities between the two works that gives specific portrayals of the mystery that is Socrates.
First and foremost, I must point out the obvious but main difference between these two works; Plato's Apology is a philosophical dialogue while Aristophanes's Clouds is a comedy. For this reason, we can say that purpose of each is very is different. The first is a work of serious philosophy while the second is a work of entertainment intended to make people laugh, usually by poking fun at people.
Second, in terms of characterization, Plato paints a picture of Socrates, as a philosopher to the end, that is, a person who truly lives a life of the pursuit of truth. In addition, Plato's view of Socrates is filled with courage, a person who...
...Recognizing the cloud computing trend
in the cloud
▶ Understanding what cloud services brokerage (CSB) is about
The Cloud Goes Mainstream
For years network architects have used clouds in network diagrams to depict wide area networks (WAN) and the Internet.
A cloud services broker, like your favorite TV meteorologist, can help your business make sense of the different clouds and cloud systems and prepare appropriately for a “rainy day.” This chapter delves into the growing cloud computing trend, and what cloud services brokerage is — and what it isn’t.
ost people think of puffy, cotton ball-like “fair weather” cumulus clouds when talking about clouds in general — and metaphorically expect that same “fair weather” experience when talking about cloud computing. But like clouds in nature, not all cloud services and cloud services providers are the same. For example, the cumulonimbus is an awesome and powerful cloud, capable of producing mighty thunderstorms and often extending into the stratosphere with a majestic anvil plume. It can also launch golf ball-sized hail stones many miles and unleash a maelstrom of deadly tornados. And a stratus cloud can immerse an entire city in a dense fog for days....
...Cloud In A Bottle
3. Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation. As a basis for understanding this concept:
c. Students know water vapor in the air moves from one place to another and can form fog or clouds, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and can fall to Earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.
Objective: Students will create a picture that shows three different cloud types (Cirrus, stratus, and cumulus).
Student Materials: 1 piece of blue construction paper per student
3-4 cotton balls per student
1 bottle of glue per 4 students
Management Strategies: This lesson is intended to be an introduction to cloud types and is appropriate for large group (whole class) instruction. The complete lesson will take about 50 minutes. Cooperative group work is not required, but could be implemented at the teacher's discretion.
1. Begin the lesson by discussing the weather at the time. Ask probing questions like, "What is the difference between the weather today and the weather yesterday?", "What kind of an effect do you think clouds have on weather?" or "What makes one cloud different from another?".
2. Show the students selected pictures from the book Spacious Skies and a series of pictures from the laser disc. Talk about what they are seeing by discussing the...
By: Amanda Oliver
Professor Sherry Queen
Have you ever looked up into the sky and wondered why the clouds vary from shapes of dinosaurs, birds, a puff of cotton candy, or your neighbor’s face? Clouds take all kinds of different shapes, and as they roll across the sky they change. In meteorology, a cloud is a visible mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals made of water or various chemicals suspended in the atmosphere above the surface of a planetary body. These suspended particles are also known as aerosols. Clouds in earth's atmosphere are studied in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. The international cloud classification system is based on the fact clouds can show free-convective upward growth like cumulus, appear in non-convective layered sheets such as stratus, or take the form of thin fibrous wisps, as in the case of cirrus. The three main types of clouds are taught to us at a very young age. The clouds are classified into three main groups: cumulus, stratus, and cirrus. Clouds may seem unimportant but they are from from it.
Cumulus clouds are puffy clouds that sometimes look like pieces of floating cotton. The base of each cloud is often flat and may be only 1000 meters above the ground. The top of the cloud...
...How do Clouds Form?
While there are a wide variety of cloud shapes and sizes, they are all made of the same thing: condensed water or ice. Clouds form when rising air, through expansion, cools to the point where some of the water vapor molecules "clump together" faster than they are torn apart by their thermal energy. Some of that (invisible) water vapor condenses to form (visible) cloud droplets or ice crystals.
Someclouds are called “convective" because it is produced from warm air pockets rising from the ground. Convective clouds are typically smaller, a hundred yards to several miles across.
"Stratiform" clouds, in contrast, typically cover much larger areas and are caused by much broader layers of more slowly rising air. Stratiform clouds have a more uniform, featureless appearance, and often cover the whole sky.
After cloud droplets (or ice crystals) form, then what happens to them? One of two things. Either they collide with each other and grow by joining together to such a large size that they fall to the ground as rain or snow, or they evaporate and change back into water vapor. It is estimated that, on average, about one-half of all cloud material in precipitation systems eventually falls to the Earth as precipitation, while the other half re-evaporates back into water vapor.
The smaller the drops in a...
...DESCRIPTIVE WRITING AND PHRASES FOR COMPOSITION
1. Describing Weather
1. It was a cold grey afternoon with a dull sky threatening rain.
2. Thunder came marching from far away with increasing speed.
3. Lightning and thunder raged with fury.
4. Thunder roared and lightning flashed across the sky.
5. Rain pelted down heavily from the sky.
6. The rain was pounding down from the black sky.
7. Dark clouds loomed above (rain clouds covered the sky).
8. Night falls and the temperature dipped to a comfortable cool.
9. The evening sky was overcast in a mixture of purple and red clouds.
10. Thunder rumbled softly.
11. Merciless rain started pouring down in torrents.
1. The sun filtered through the clouds, signaling the end of the rain.
2. A golden glow spread across the sky as the sun chased the dark clouds away.
3. The high sunlit clouds drifted across a clear blue sky.
4. Dappled sun rays filtered through the canopy of leaves.
5. Sky was overcast (cloudy).
6. … looked up at the morning sky where the majestic sun reigned supreme.
7. A bright morning with the sun shining gloriously.
8. At the crack of dawn (very early in the morning).
9. Morning breeze weaved among the leaves.
10. It was 12 o’clock in the afternoon and the sun was...