“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Classical conditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns a relationship between the stimuli. Systematic desensitization, also known as graduated exposure therapy is a type of behaviour therapy used to help overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. There are 3 stages of systematic desensitization: first the identity of an anxiety must be found and this encourages stimulus hierarchy. The second step is the learning of relaxation or coping techniques to help them through the anxiety. Once the individual has been taught these techniques and skills, they are then used in the third step to react towards and overcome situations in the established hierarchy of fears. The target of these steps is for the individual to learn how to cope with, and overcome the fear of the hierarchy. Phobias can be acquired through classical conditioning by pairing a neutral stimulus with something that really causes pain. One of the most famous examples of classical conditioning was Watson and Rayner (1920) experiment in which a fear response was conditioned in a young boy known as ‘Little Albert’. The child initially showed no fear of a white rat. However, any time that Albert went to touch the creature, a researcher struck a steel bar with a hammer producing a loud noise causing Albert to cry. This pairing was repeated several times and by the end the child would cry when the rat was present with or without the noise. Albert showed intense fear the moment the rat came into view. This led him...
...The Development & Desensitisation of Phobias using ClassicalConditioningClassicalconditioning plays a huge part in the development of phobias. A phobia is a fear of an animal/place/situation etc. which can make the person feel compelled to avoid it. Phobias have the ability to disrupt your everyday life, like your ability to work, socialize etc. People who suffer from phobias are usually very overwhelmed by their anxiety which might cause them to avoid the feared objects or situations. This is a huge burden for some people and it can affect their everyday life. Human beings are not born with phobias; they are something that we develop over time. This can be caused by classicalconditioning. Classicalconditioning is “when one stimulus is paired with another that changes or obscures the original reflexive response to the original stimulus (Dingfelder, 2005).”
For example, Ophidiophobia, which is the fear of snakes. A human being is not born with a fear of snakes; it is something we obtain over time. For example, if the snake is paired with a fearful thought that the snake could possibly bite and/or kill then in most cases the person will learn to fear the snake because the fearful thought is automatically associated with the sight or thought of snakes (Dingfelder, 2005).
In classicalconditioning experiments, a single pairing...
...punctuation-you can do it!!
ClassicalConditioning and Operant Conditioning
Phobias in a human being are a very powerful thing. So powerful that they can be developed at a very early age, and affect the rest of our lives. There are many types of phobias, some are more common than others, such as heights, insects, or needles. I have also seen phobias as weird as pickles and rabbits! Despite how weird a phobia might be, these phobias have developed a certain way: Through classical or operant conditioning.
As far as a conditioned response goes, emotions greatly come into play. Emotions are triggered by something, or maybe someone. One famous study that proves classicalconditioning can trigger a phobia, -check your punctuation -is the case of “Little Albert”. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner performed a study with a nine month old baby. They would show him a rat, and then make a loud scary noise using a steel bar. Over the course of a few months, little Albert developed a fear of the rat because of the frightening noise associated with it.
However, classicalconditioning is not that simple, fears don’t just simply develop one time something bad happens. “Classicalconditioning does not occur every time a bell rings, a baby startles, or a wolf eats some tainted lamb chops. Several factors influence the extent...
Results from presentation of conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus.
Definition of Stimulus-
Stimulus which reliably elicits a reflex-like response.
E.g., puff of air- eye blink, Pain- withdrawal, loud noise- startled response, food powder- salivation.
Reflex-like response elicited by unconditioned stimulus
An originally neutral stimulus (does not elicit the UR) that when paired with US (number of times) leads to response similar to UR
E.g., tone, light taste
Response to CS that is similar to UR
E.g., eye blink, withdrawal, salivation
Examples of classicalconditioning
Pavlov’s dogs (Russia )
CS – US—UR
Caretaker – food – Salivation
CS – CR
Caretaker – salivation
Twitmeyer’s patellar reflex (Pennsylvania)
CS – US – UR
Tone – tap tendon – knee jerk
Tone – leg movement
College student in dorm
CS—US – UR
CS – CR
Toilet flush – hot water – jump back
Toilet flush—jump back
Pair CS & US together
Present CS alone
Reappearance of CR after extinction of the CR
Types of pairing
Forward conditioning CS – US
Backward conditioning US – CS NOT EFFECTIVE
Simultaneous cond. not effective
...Use classicalconditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitisation can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with an example/s
Classicalconditioning is a wonderful form of therapy which involves studying the condition that predicts that a spesific event will occur. Humans acquire a lot of their behavior through classicalconditioning. Classicalconditioning involves different learning principles, which include: acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalisation and discrimination(Sarma, 2010). It has being proved by tests, that classicalconditioning will only occur when the conditional stimulus is a reliable predictor of the unconditional stimulus. Different stimuli can cause emotional responses, such as feelings of fear or anger. Most of theses stimuli, such as a face, a place or a song, previously had no important significance. But through classicalconditioning these stimuli were paired with other stimuli that caused powerfull emotional reactions, so the stimuli which origionally caused no emotional significance now conducted the role of being emotionally very important. Berkowitz (1964) discovered that when people got horrible electrical shocks while being around other people, as a result they then...
...‘Classicalconditioning provides us with a way to learn cause and effect relations between environmental events’ (Martin, Carlson and Buskist, 2010, pg 259). Classicalconditioning is learning by association and is the main way in which we develop phobias. The main type being specific phobias which are generally influenced by genetics or a traumatic childhood event. There are three basic principles off classicalconditioning which are important to be aware of when researching the development of phobias: Acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Indirect conditioning is also a major factor in how phobias can develop. Examples of indirect conditioning are generalisation, higher order conditioning, sensory preconditioning and vicarious conditioning. Ivan Pavlov’s discovery is by far one of the best for describing the process of classicalconditioning. In this essay it will explain how he used dogs and the production of saliva to show how we learn by association. Phobias are sometimes treated by systematic desensitisation. ‘The verb to sensitize means “to make someone highly responsive or susceptible to certain stimuli,” and the prefix de- indicates removing, or doing the opposite.’ (Sarafino E.P., 1996, pg 232). This essay will also show some examples of how...
...Classicalconditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classicalconditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Behaviorism is based on the assumption that learning occurs through interactions with the environment. Two other assumptions of this theory are that the environment shapes behavior and that taking internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions into consideration is useless in explaining behavior.
It's important to note that classicalconditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex. In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a tone and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food. By associating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.
In order to understand how more about how classicalconditioning works, it is important to be familiar with the basic principles of the process.
The unconditioned stimulus is one that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. For example, when you smell one of your...
...ssical condir=tioningu03d1 ClassicalConditioning and Ethics
What can classicalconditioning theory teach us about both developing and alleviating fears and phobias?
Our textbook describes phobia as being "an excessive and intense fear, usually of a specific object or situation,..." (Terry, pg.77, 2009). The classicalconditioning theory teaches us several different aspects about phobias; including how phobias develop and how to treat phobias, thus, alleviating fears altogether. Many behaviorists believe that phobias are an example of classicalconditioning. According to Terry (2009), what is required to produce a phobia is a UCS that produces a strong emotional reaction, pain, for example, and a situation where that UCS can become associated with a neutral stimulus. For example, say you were bitten by a dog when you were a child: If that anxiety response carries over from that particular dog to all dogs then the result would be that you would become anxious every time you saw a dog. In short, you would have developed a phobia.
"In humans, classicalconditioning can account for such complex phenomena as an individual's emotional reaction to a particular song or perfume based on a past experience with which it is associated; the song or perfume is a CS that elicits a pleasant emotional response because it was associated with a friend...
Markeda Shipman |
When we think of classicalconditioning we think of Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov discovered classicalconditioning, during 1904 when he began studying the digestion of dogs. Ivan Pavlov is one of the most remarkable men that came up with theories so that we are able to understand what is going on in the world of psychology today. Classicalconditioning is one of the theories that will always be brought up in the field of psychology. As we ask ourselves, what are classicalconditioning, and the theories behind classicalconditioning?
The theory of classicalconditioning is broken down into a three step learning procedure which involves reflexes. The Pavlovian (classicalconditioning) consists of unconditioned stimulus (US), “which elicits a natural and automatic response from the organism, unconditioned response (UR), which is a natural and automatic response elicited by the (US), and conditioned stimulus (CS), which is a neutral stimulus in that it does not elicit a natural and automatic response from the organism. When all of these ingredients are mixed in a desired way conditioned response (CR) is...