Classical conditioning is a method of conditioning in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus. I consider classical conditioning to be very important because it’s such an efficient way of teaching, training or conditioning people or animals, especially children. Classical conditioning could be used for psychological distress like phobias. For example, Mary cover jones put a child with a fear of rabbits in a room with the rabbit far way. Then she gave him his favorite food and put the rabbit closer. Associating the pleasure of food with the feared object made him no longer scared of rabbits. This applies to my life because my mom used this method when she raised me. I was scared of riding my bike because I fell off it once. So every time I attempted pedaling she would give me a dollar. Finally she put 5 dollars all way down the street and told me to bike there and get it; making me lose my phobia of bikes. The second concept I find important are mnemonic devices. Mnemonic devices are ‘tricks” to help with memorization. Mnemonic devices include rhymes, songs and acronyms. I have used mnemonic devices throughout my childhood years and throughout school. They’ve helped me tremendously; which is why I find them to be so important to young, learning kids. Some examples are... ‘Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally’ standing for PEMDAS to help kids remember the order of operations. Or... “King Henry Died Drinking Chocolate Milk” which is used to remember the order from largest to smallest: Kilo, Hecto, Deka, Deci Centi, & Milli. Retrieval is the last most important concept that I’ve learned in the module. Have you ever had that moment when something’s on the tip of your tongue but you can’t quite remember? That happens when retrieval has been disrupted. Retention is the maintenance of memory. You prove retention by retrieving information previously learned on a later date. Retention...
...Classicalconditioning has also found its way into the realms of entertainment. The most notable example of this is the 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange written by Anthony Burgess and it subsequent 1971 movie directed by the late Stanley Kubrick (Internet Movie Database.) A Clockwork Orange details the activities of a young ultra-violet protagonist named Alex. Alex is "cured" of his evil tendencies via classicalconditioning. He is forced to watch various films depicting ultra-violence (US) and the like, and his natural feeling of excitement or joy serves as the UR. The films are paired with a drug (CS) that makes Alex violently ill. In turn Alex eventually becomes violently ill (now the CR) when he begins to feel the excitement associated with violence. The people treating Alex also utilize galvanic skin response (GSR) to get the optimal results. GSR is used to measure arousal from a stimulus (Hawkins 1998.) It uses small electrodes attached to the skin that measures minute changes in perspiration. The most well known use for GSR is in the lie detector test (Hawkins 1998.) The book brings up certain moral aspects of classicalconditioning when used to modify behavior (such as consumer behavior.) Burgess makes his character out to be programmed, and unable to make choices on his own. It is generally believed that Burgess overstates the power of classical...
...‘Classicalconditioning provides us with a way to learn cause and effect relations between environmental events’ (Martin, Carlson and Buskist, 2010, pg 259). Classicalconditioning is learning by association and is the main way in which we develop phobias. The main type being specific phobias which are generally influenced by genetics or a traumatic childhood event. There are three basic principles off classicalconditioning which are important to be aware of when researching the development of phobias: Acquisition, extinction and spontaneous recovery. Indirect conditioning is also a major factor in how phobias can develop. Examples of indirect conditioning are generalisation, higher order conditioning, sensory preconditioning and vicarious conditioning. Ivan Pavlov’s discovery is by far one of the best for describing the process of classicalconditioning. In this essay it will explain how he used dogs and the production of saliva to show how we learn by association. Phobias are sometimes treated by systematic desensitisation. ‘The verb to sensitize means “to make someone highly responsive or susceptible to certain stimuli,” and the prefix de- indicates removing, or doing the opposite.’ (Sarafino E.P., 1996, pg 232). This essay will also show some examples of how systematic desensitization is performed....
19) What is a neuron?- the basic unit of the nervous system
20) A gymnast's ability to balance herself on a thin piece of wood is regulated in the.- ear.
1) When comparing and contrasting operant and classicalconditioning, such psychologists as John Donahue argue that? -they are probably more similar than different, sharing underlying processes.
2) Research by psychologist Deirdre Barrett suggests that dreams may be especially helpful in?- solving visual problems.
3) Approximately ____ percent of the population cannot be hypnotized.- 5-20
4) According to studies on the content of dreams, the most commonly reported thematic element is?- aggression.
5) A person trained in meditation repeats the same sound over and over again, a phrase known as a?- mantra.
6) People with a relational learning style are able to acquire new information by?- examining problems as a whole.
7) Which of the following is an example of the behavioral process known as extinction?- Lauren no longer shops at her neighborhood bakery because they stopped making her favorite kind of bagels.
8) Which of the following naturally elicits the response with which it is paired, even without conditioning?- unconditioned stimulus
9) Temporary sleep deprivation can lead to?- slower reaction times, lower academic performance, and an inability to concentrate.
10) During the first half...
...ssical condir=tioningu03d1 ClassicalConditioning and Ethics
What can classicalconditioning theory teach us about both developing and alleviating fears and phobias?
Our textbook describes phobia as being "an excessive and intense fear, usually of a specific object or situation,..." (Terry, pg.77, 2009). The classicalconditioning theory teaches us several different aspects about phobias; including how phobias develop and how to treat phobias, thus, alleviating fears altogether. Many behaviorists believe that phobias are an example of classicalconditioning. According to Terry (2009), what is required to produce a phobia is a UCS that produces a strong emotional reaction, pain, for example, and a situation where that UCS can become associated with a neutral stimulus. For example, say you were bitten by a dog when you were a child: If that anxiety response carries over from that particular dog to all dogs then the result would be that you would become anxious every time you saw a dog. In short, you would have developed a phobia.
"In humans, classicalconditioning can account for such complex phenomena as an individual's emotional reaction to a particular song or perfume based on a past experience with which it is associated; the song or perfume is a CS that elicits a pleasant emotional response because it was associated with a friend...
...“Use classicalconditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.”
This essay explores the practices of classicalconditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classicalconditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Classicalconditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism learns a relationship between the stimuli. Systematic desensitization, also known as graduated exposure therapy is a type of behaviour therapy used to help overcome phobias and other anxiety disorders. There are 3 stages of systematic desensitization: first the identity of an anxiety must be found and this encourages stimulus hierarchy. The second step is the learning of relaxation or coping techniques to help them through the anxiety. Once the individual has been taught these techniques and skills, they are then used in the third step to react towards and overcome situations in the established hierarchy of fears. The target of these steps is for the individual to learn how to cope with, and overcome the fear of the hierarchy.
Phobias can be acquired through classicalconditioning by pairing...
IMPLICIT ATTITUDE FORMATION THROUGH
Michael A. Olson and Russell H. Fazio
Abstract-We sought to demonstrate that attitudes can develop
through implicit covariation detection in a new classicalconditioning
paradigm. In two experiments purportedly about surveillance and
vigilance. participants viewed several hundred randomly presented
words and images interspersed with critical pairings ofvalenced unconditioned
stimuli (USs) with novel conditioned stimuli (CSs). Attitudes
toward the novel objects were influenced by the paired USs: In
a surprise evaluation task. the CS paired with positive items was
evaluated more positively than the CS paired with negative items.
This attitudinal conditioning effect was found using both an explicit
measure (Experiments I and 2) and an implicit measure (Experiment
2). In a covariation estimation task involving the stimuli presented in
the conditioning procedure. participants displayed no explicit memory'for
Attitude fonnation. how people come to evaluate objects in the environment
positively and negatively, is a long-standing issue in social
psychology. A fundamental fonn of attitude acquisition. classicalconditioning,
has struck the curiosities of not only social psychologists
(e.g., Cacioppo. Marshall-Goodell....
Describe in detail, the simple changes in synapses that happen during classicalconditioning.
Discuss the extent to which all forms of learning can be explained by these simple synaptic synaptic changes.
The brain’s ability to learn, to change in response to experience and to store/retrieve learning through memory it is a fascinating process fundamental to one’s existence. The first scientific study of animal learning demonstrated a form of associative learning - classicalconditioning; it can be described as a process of learning where a neutral stimulus (e.g. bell) is paired with an unconditional stimulus (e.g. food) and as a consequence, the neutral stimulus becomes conditioned and comes to elicit the same response (e.g. salivation) as the unconditional stimulus even when presented alone (Murphy & Naish, 2006). It has been proposed that “…classicalconditioning…is quite easy to explain on the basis of simple changes in synapses.” In order to assess the merit of this claim, it is necessary to describe the simple changes that occur in synapses during classicalconditioning. All forms of learning require some synaptic change, however it isn’t clear whether these can always be explained by the same kind of synaptic changes that happen in classicalconditioning (Murphy & Naish, 2006). Some forms of learning will...
...environment, children are often exposed to influences which gradually change their behavior and their way of thinking. This is known as conditioning and was a concept that explained how children can be influenced to act a certain way around stimuli, such as a person or object. John B. Watson originally founded the idea of behaviorism and conditioning. His ideas explained how people act in certain situations and what events may have influenced a person to act in that way. In The Scarlet Letter, conditioning is a key element in many parts of the story. Hester’s reactions to different characters influence her daughter, Pearl, to act in similar ways around each character. Hawthorne's character Pearl shows evidence of being conditioned to react to various stimuli, such as her mother's scarlet letter, a key characteristic of John B. Watson's theory of behaviorism and conditioning.
John B. Watson’s theory of behaviorism and conditioning explains how humans learn to react in certain ways when presented with various stimuli, often learning by watching the reactions of other people around them. This is especially evident in younger children, as they are more easily influenced into thinking in a certain way. In 1920, Watson published his work on one of his experiments known as the “Little Albert” study. This study was intended to demonstrate how conditioning can affect a person’s reactions to various...