Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
I chose the category Freedom of Religion because I find the many different religions followed in America fascinating. I enjoy learning about them all and expanding my knowledge of the rituals and celebrations different religions participate in. I chose The Free Exercise Clause sub category because I find how even though the first amendment provides freedom of religion it does not give freedom of all religious practices such as polygamy and sacrifice. The U.S. constitution protects against the governments interference with the citizens freedom to worship or not worship as they please by the first amendment. This Amendment guarantees the right for citizens to freely practice their religion as they choose to which may seem simple, but becomes complicated when the actions of religious groups are unaccepted by society or go against other laws. In Employment Division v. Smith 1998, the Supreme Court discarded the previous requirement for a compelling interest before governmental limitation or prohibition of religious practices. The court ruled it constitutional for state laws to interfere with religious practices as long as the law is not aimed at singling out and banning religious practices. In this case persons using the drug peyote as part of their religious rituals were prosecuted by the state of Oregon (Edwards, &Wattenberg, &Lineberry, 2008). The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 was an attempt to overturn the principle court ruling in Smith. This act gave the right to perform religious rituals unless the government could prove the law or regulation in question to be narrowly tailored and in pursuit of a compelling interest. This act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1997 because it was an intrusion regulating the health and welfare of the states citizens. In 2006 the law still applied to federal government and a religious sect was allowed to use a hallucinogenic in the form of a tea in...
Chapter 5 Review Questions
1. CivilRights are the government-protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals. The concept of equality got introduced into the constitution. The 14th Amendment, one of three Civil war Amendments ratified from 1865 to 1870, introduced the notion of equality into the constitution by specifying that a state could not deny “any person within jurisdiction equal protection of the laws.” It is evident in the recent Walmart vs. Duke case, where women were not allowed to attend management meetings or further their career at Walmart. It is important because today, this amendment protects a variety of groups against discrimination.
2. Bakke was followed by a 1979 case in which the Court ruled that a factory and a union could voluntarily adopt a quota system in selecting black workers over more senior white workers for a training program. This outraged blue collar Americans who traditionally voted for the Democratic Party. Later they abandoned the party, a foe of affirmative action.
3. The statute defines a disabled person as someone with a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more “life activities” or who has a record of such impairment.
4. The DADT policy is where the military would no longer as gays and lesbians if they were homosexual.
5. Homosexual people should be, and under our existing system generally are,...
...the cause of protest and objection. Civilrights and inequality cases and issues are focused on by Congress, the courts, and the bureaucracy. Not only is discrimination an issue against race and gender, other groups have been demanding social and constitutional protection. There are some that have to do with age and disability, and there are more controversial ones like sexual orientation.
Civilrights must be demanded and quieted upon. These fights have to take place on philosophical levels, as well as Constitutional interpretations. The Declaration of Independence might have stated equal rights for all, but does it actually mean equal opportunities for all. Even though we might have equal opportunities, does that mean we all have equal chances of succeeding? Do all of these other minorities have the same chance to succeeding as do all other peoples? Are they all getting the same results and reward? This is the focus of the 21st civilliberties fight. Founding fathers did not explicitly mention equal rights for all; however, the interpretations of the constitution and other historical documents do no not limit freedom to any specific government.
The constitution is unequal in many terms. The First Amendment didn’t explicitly allow freedom of expression which allows people to protest for equality. Equality only appeared in the post-Civil War in...
In U.S., the bill of rights protects civilliberties. People in the United States, hold civilrights, which are those privileges, immunities and rights held by all Americans and political rights, which are the rights that are restricted to those who are entitled to participate in elections, as candidates or voters. The distinction is important since not all are eligible to vote though they all should enjoy their freedoms. This may no longer be feasible as majority of the civilrights are taken to include the political rghts in this age.
National security can be defined as a country's need to maintain its survival by use of military, political and economic power for diplomacy. Civilliberty are freedoms and rights exercised by individuals in any country provided by their country's legislation or international laws, for example the right to life, freedom of speech, freedom of expression, the right to privacy, the right to security and liberty and many more. National security issues arose after the second world war in the united states of America with initial emphasis on the military. For any country in this day and age, national security encompasses energy security, economic security, environmental security and many more....
...CivilRights Act 1964 The CivilRights Act of 1964 prohibits the legal discrimination of any one person for any reason another person may come up with. The whole CivilRights Act was based on one document entry that summarizes the entire CivilRights Act of 1964 in one sentence: "To enforce the constitutional right to vote, to confer jurisdiction upon the district courts of the United States to provide injunctive relief against discrimination in public accommodations, to authorize the Attorney General to institute suits to protect constitutional rights in public facilities and public education, to extend the Commission on CivilRights, to prevent discrimination in federally assisted programs, to establish a Commission on Equal Employment Opportunity, and for other purposes." The CivilRights Act was a time when people who were exploited for many years, rose up the odds and achieved their freedom. The African Americans won their independence through determination, persistence, and courage. Before the CivilRights Act of 1964, the African American race was considered to be second-class citizens, and they were socially and economically discriminated against. Property values would drop a great deal if an African American family moved into a neighborhood...
Both the black civilrights and the women’s rights movements had a similar goal in mind: create opportunities for their groups that were as equal as the majority had, and to end discrimination against them and enforce constitutional voting rights to them. These two movements had to deal with the question of how one goes about pursuing such opportunities effectively. In this essay my goal is to compare and contrast the effectiveness of the methods used in both the black civilrights and the women’s rights movements.
These two movements were characterized by major campaigns of civil resistance. Acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations between activists and government authorities. Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to these situations that highlighted the inequities face by these two movements. Forms of protests and disobedience included boycotts, marches, of course, the woman’s suffrage and a wide range of other nonviolent activities.
The movement within the larger CivilRights Movement (which started with the Brown v.Board of Ed. ruling and moved through desegregation in public facilities up the voting rights act) that I want discuss first is the Selma to Montgomery march that Southern Christian...
...that the Federal Government hindered the CivilRights movement in the period 1945-1968?
The Federal Government was a significant part in pushing the civilrights movement forwards, but in some cases it hindered the civilrights movement, especially with Presidential figures such as Eisenhower who had no interest in the CivilRights movement. He believed that the social status and power of the black community in the US would improve naturally of its own accord over time and that there was no need for the government to get involved, or it was not the governments job to improve the conditions for black people.an example of Eisenhower hindering the CivilRights Movement would be at the Little Rock campaign where he was very slow to respond to the much needed help of the nine black students, as they were not being allowed into the school because of the national guard and he didn’t condemn any of the white violence directed towards the black students or people of Little Rock. Although Eisenhower can also be seen to have pushed the movement forwards in some ways, for example at Little Rock he used federal troops to uphold the Brown ruling, but again he was very reluctant in doing this, which I think doesn’t show that he tried to move the CivilRights Movement forward, but was in fact forced to intervene because of...
...Chapter 29 CivilRights and Uncivil Liberties (1947-1969)
1. The chapter introduction tells the story of a schoolgirl and a teacher to make the point that
D. the wrenching changes of the 1960s, which affected most Americans, grew out of the social trends and conditions of the 1950s.
2. Approximately what percentage of cotton was picked mechanically in 1960?
A. 50 percent
3. What finally pushed the Kennedy administration to commit to federal legislation to end segregation and protect voting rights?
D. the violent repression of nonviolent demonstrations
Chapter 29 - CivilRights and Uncivil Liberties (1947-1969) 29-2
4. The case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka concerned
C. racial segregation in public schools.
5. In the 1947 Texas desegregation order there was an exception; the first grade could continue to be segregated. What was the rationale for this exception?
A. language skills
6. What event, more than any other, catapulted Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to national prominence?
B. the Montgomery bus boycott
7. The Black Panther party believed in
B. armed protection and protest.
Chapter 29 - CivilRights and Uncivil Liberties (1947-1969) 29-3
8. Martin Luther King, Jr. rose to leadership in the civilrights movement during the 1950s.
His strategies, different from...
...One of the major groups that were in the CivilRights movement was the NAACP which fought for CivilRights by changing the laws thinking that if the law stated that the white community had to treat them equally, they would do so. They continually argued the 14th amendment which granted them equal protection under the law and the easiest cases that pointed this out were the ones about the inequality in education. Thurgood Marshall, the main lawyer for the NAACP, is famous for his court case Brown vs. Topeka Board of education and Brown vs. Board of Education II. The first case was not a success because the supreme court agreed with the board, but the second case in 1953, came to the agreement that segregation was wrong on the grounds that separating black students from others that are the same age and intelligence as them because of their race, “generates a feeling of inferiority... that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone,” (Chief Justice Earl Warren). This was a major success for the NAACP although implementing the new ruling proved to be more difficult because the federal government did not force the state governments to apply them to their cities. This ruling did change some districts but most did not comply. Many schools and school districts were closed because the cities would have rather close them than integrate. Also because of President Eisenhower’s lack of support, the...