INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
This chapter explores the background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, hypothesis, methodology and the significance of the study. 1.1 Background of the Study
The rule of law is a legal maxim whereby governmental decisions are made by applying known legal principles or the constitution while security policies are directives organized to capture and ensure that rule of law is ensured in relation to internal and external security matters of a country.1 In August 2012, a series of ethnic clashes between the Orma and Pokomo tribes of Kenya's Tana River District resulted in the deaths of at least fifty-two people. The violence was the worst of its kind in Kenya since the country's 2007–08 crises. The violence left 118 people dead and more than 13,500 displaced and another more than 30,000 people affected by the ethno-political clashes. Over 50% of the 13500 are children the rest being women and elderly.2 The major ethnic groups of the Tana River District are the Pokomo, many of whom are farmers along the Tana River, and the Orma, who are predominantly a cattle-herding nomadic people.3 The district is generally dry and prone to drought, with erratic rainfall during the March–May and October–December rainy seasons. The climate has sparked numerous clashes between farmers and nomadic peoples over access to water.4 Approximately ten days before the ethnic clash on 22 August 2012, three Pokomo people were killed by members of the Orma community. In retaliation, the Pokomo people raided Orma villages and burned more than one hundred houses.5 On 22 August 2012, in the worst violent incident in Kenya since 2007, at least fifty-two people were killed in ethnic violence in the Tana River District between the Orma and Pokomo groups.6 The violence occurred in southeast Kenya, in the Reketa area of Tarassa, near the coast and approximately 300 kilometers (190 mi) from the capital, Nairobi.7 The ethnic violence was the result of a dispute over land rights for the tribes' cattle. Police believe that the attack was carried out by the Pokomo people, who attacked the Orma, following an Orma invasion of farms belonging to the Pokomo.8 The attackers were armed with machetes, bows and arrows, spears and handguns.9 Thirty-one women, eleven children, and six men were killed during the violence. Of these, thirty-four people were hacked to death with machetes, while fourteen people were burned to death. Four other Kenyans later died from injuries sustained during the attack. In addition, the Pokomo captured approximately two hundred cattle belonging to the Orma.10 On 7th Sept at 3am in the morning of 12 people were killed by Orma. The Capital FM quoted incident as: Police and the Kenya Red Cross said the attacks occurred at Tarasaa where houses were burnt, in what is believed to be retaliatory attacks by the Orma people against the Pokomos.11 Kenya Red Cross state that over 300 cattle and 400 goats have been raided, house torched.12 On 10th Sept 38 people were killed by Pokomo, including 9 police officer. The deceased include 16 men, five women, nine police officers and eight children. The officers include five GSU, two Administration Police and two regular police officers. The violence occurred at Kilelengwani Village. On the next morning of 11th, 3 people were killed by Orma at Semikaro, Laini, Nduru and Shirikisho villages of Tana Delta. On 13th Sept over 1311 paramilitary police officers to quell unrest in Tana River. On Monday 17th Sept at around 5.45am 67 houses were torched at Ozi Village. There were no casualties reported. The next day MP Mungatana claimed those houses were torched by GSU sent there earlier from Nairobi to quell the violence. The same day (Monday 17th) police found a grave which was suspecting to be having copse. Police were issued with a court order to dig up suspected grave but found nothing apart from part of a human...
...Conflict can be described as a natural disagreement between two interdependent parties as a result of differences in attitudes, values, beliefs and needs. When the parties perceive incompatible goals with each other or detect interference from the other in achieving their goals conflict will arise. Scarce resources in any society are also a trigger for conflict between individuals and groups. There are multiple definitions ofconflict available but commonalities exist among all of them. In order for there to be conflict all parties involved must notice the struggle. Other commonalities include scarcity of resources, opposition and interference in achieving goals.
Different schools of thought view conflict differently and there has been conflict regarding the role of conflict in society. The Traditional view, which reigned in the 1930’s and 1940’s held the idea that conflict was a negative feature of society and was evidence of dysfunction brought about by inadequate communication, and a lack of trust and openness between different groups in society. Therefore, in accordance to this view, conflict should be avoided at all costs. This view did not prevail for very long due to its rigidity. The Human Relations view replaced the Traditional view and prevailed from the late 1940’s through to the 1970’s. This new view believed that...
...significance of the study, the scope of the study and the conceptual framework.
1.2 Background to the problem
Every 10 years, the IUCN World Parks Congress (WPC) brings together conservation experts from around the world to share information and ideas, and set a global policy agenda for protected areas. The 5th IUCN World Parks Congress was held in Durban, South Africa from September 8–17, 2004, and was attended by approximately 3,000 protected area experts, practitioners, and decision makers. The 5th WPC brought human–wildlife conflict (HWC) to the global stage as part of an effort to address current challenges facing protected area management and conservation. The HWC recommendation was informed by a technical workshop that was part of the WPC proceedings. The workshop entitled “Creating Coexistence Between Humans and Wildlife: Global Perspectives on Local Efforts to Address Human-Wildlife Conflict” combined vigorous debate on human–wildlife conflict issues with a technical focus on useful outputs for those working in the profession .T he “Creating Coexistence” workshop included approximately 30 practitioners and professionals from a variety of institutions, disciplines, and geographic regions. To begin, eight case studies of specific efforts to address HWC involving a variety of species and settings were presented. Panelists then offered “lessons learned” for group discussion. Participants also worked as a group to...
...May 15, 2013
I want to invite you to take a journey with me.
If you haven’t heard already, I’m going to Kenya, Africa from August 16th – 30st! And if I can be honest with you about my emotions, I’m definitely nervous but even more so, I’m beyond excited to be a part of a real, live, daring missions outreach opportunity with the kids and people of Kenya!
Some of you know my story of where I’ve been & what I’ve done. Matter of fact, a lot of you may have seen for yourselves or walked alongside me during the transformation that God has and is still working out inside of me. Going from a life of meaninglessness due to the lack of identity of who I was, to a life of purpose & love from an identity of who He is and who I am in Him. Through that transformation God is working in me, an aching desire to see people’s lives changed through finding an identity in God has been growing more & more inside me. My hope is that not only would God add more fuel to that fire, but that I would be able to help the kids & people of Kenya find identity and hope in a place that doesn’t always call for one, Africa.
I never dreamed or even would have dared to think that I would be going out in such a huge way as this. But God is doing something new in my life, moving things from my head to my heart & enlarging my heart to make them fit! He’s taking me outside of myself to partner with a wonderful group of other men & women to...
...Potentiometric Titration of Sodium Carbonate
Otieno O. Victor
University of Detroit Mercy
Quantitative Analysis Lab CHM 3880
Partner: Edwin Gay
The PH at each point during the titration of sodium carbonate unknown sample was determined. An Unknown sample of Na2CO3 was titrated with a standard HCL solution. In addition to titration, the pH at each point of titration was measured using PH meter. The % of the unknown Na2CO3 was 25.83%
The purpose of this experiment was to determine the actual pH at each point during the titration of a sodium carbonate unknown with the use of pH meter.
An acid-base titration is a procedure which is used to determine the concentration of an acid or base. A measured volume of an acid or base of known concentration is reacted with a sample to the equivalence point. However, there are difficulties in completing acid-base reactions with the aid of visual indicators. This is likely due to factors like unsuitable color change for a given type of titration. Also, this might be due to student’s being color-blind to certain indicator color changes. Moreover, certain solutions might be already be colored. To limit such uncertainties and difficulties, potentiometric titration is applicable.
Potentiometric titration can be used to distinguish acids. The amount of titrant added helps determines the pH of a solution. Usually, a change in pH observed is small. However, at endpoint, the pH observed is often of a...
...The Need to Improve Agricultural Extension for women farmers in KenyaKENYA
• A country in East Africa lies on the equator • It is a poor and developing country • Land Area: 580,000 km2 • Capital: Nairobi • Population: A little over 43 million residents • Climate: warm and humid • Language: Swahili & English • GDP (2011): Total - $71.427 billion; Per capita - $1,746 • Agriculture and Service are the greatest contributor to its GDP
The Problem inKenya
The Role of a Solid Agricultural Extension Program for successful Rural Development in Kenya
• Absolute poverty is disproportionately concentrated among women in rural areas • Role of women in agriculture is particularly important in Sub-Saharan Africa
Role of women in agriculture is particularly important in Sub-Saharan Africa
• Agricultural extension has played a vital role in the activities of most multilateral and bilateral agencies
Multilateral Agency- institutions that provide financial support and professional advice for economic and social development activities in developing countries Bilateral Agencies- a ministry or part of a government ministry dedicated to advancing foreign policy goals while contributing to the economic and social development of recipient countries Agricultural Extension* has played a vital role in the development of the United States * general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to...
...the estate or against the intermediater.
This is captured in order 13 rule 83 where if the court justifies that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor, or by some other person at his instigation, it shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property, and, where the applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the court may also, at the instance of the applicant, order the judgment-debtor, or any person acting at his instigation, to be detained in prison for a period not exceeding thirty days. Greatest care must be exercised during execution not to execute against a wrong party as this could amount to tress pass that may create both criminal and civil liability.
PROCEDURES IN EXECUTION:
In relation to Application for execution, where the holder of a decree desires to execute it, he or she shall apply to the court which passed the decree, or, if the decree has been sent under the provisions hereinbefore contained to another court, then to that court or to the proper officer of that other court. Every application for execution of a decree shall be in writing, signed and verified by the applicant or his advocate and shall be in tabular form containing the following; suit number, names of the parties, date of decree, whether an appeal is preferred, whether any and if any what part payment has been affected, whether there is a previous application, amount due with...
Civil War & Reconstruction
Compromise involves both give and take, where both sides involved
receive some of what they wanted, but neither side fully gets 100 percent of
what they wanted. Compromise for the most part keeps things running
smoothly. I personally believe that compromise is beneficial during this time.
The Missouri Compromise, for example, started when the territory of Missouri
wanted to join the Union as a slave state after the Louisiana Purchase. The
question was if to allow this move with slavery or not. At this point in time, the
country’s main concern was growth, but with growth came the expansion of
thought and power.
The Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 and was the first true
attempt in finding an answer and a solution to the continued battle of slavery.
This compromise weighed equality in the numbers of free states and slave
states. This compromise makes a good point in my opinion, because for three
decades this seemed to allow hold back on the crisis of slavery and put a holt of
slavery dominating the nation.
The Compromise of 1850 is another important factor related to the benefits and
importance of compromise in the pre-civil war era. Following the Mexican War, the
Unite States acquired territory in the West. Yet again, the question whether slavery should be allowed in those new states or not,...
For this project, I will be writing about the various ways in resolving personality conflicts in an organization. There are conflicts which deal with personalities, discrimination and leadership. These are common situations to any organization. At my company, a conflict arises due to the mere fact that one believes the research of a Teflon product made by Boston Science Guys Corporation is stronger than the other Teflon product made by Johnson & Joe, Inc. Here are two heated employees in a debate that one knows more about a Teflon manufactured product than the other. This situation will need to have a neutral person involved to view the differences regarding the disagreement which creates a conflict of interest of the organization. That is where I step in when a situation arises. In order for me to facilitate all individuals involved, the cooperation from all will be needed. During this process, a meeting will be schedule and conducted to have both employees describe the escalated debate of something that could have been handled in a better way by both employees. If there is any sense of unwillingness, an appointed manager or supervisor of that particular department will be the person to defuse the situation in order to resolve the conflict. My input will be valued in order to move forward with an objective of what the goals of this organization needs in resolving any...