Even since the dramatic post-1949 changes in China regarding the role of women, China has remained paternalistic in it's attitudes and social reality. Like many other states, China inescapably has been deeply involved in human rights politics at the international level in recent decades. During this period of time, the Chinese government has been increasingly active in participating in the international human rights regime. China has so far joined seventeen human rights conventions, the U.N. Human Rights Commission, and has expressed its respect for international human rights law. In 1997 China signed the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and in 1998 China signed the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The land reform, which was intended to create a more balanced economic force in marriage, was the beginning of governmental efforts to pacify women, with no real social effect. Communist China needed to address the "woman question". Since women wanted more equality, and equality is doled out from the hands of those in power, capitalism was examined. The economic issues of repressed Chinese women were focused on the Land Act and the Marriage Act of 1950. The Land reform succeeded in eliminating the extended family's material basis and hence, its potential for posing as a political threat to the regime. Small-plots were redistributed to each family member regardless of age or sex; and land reform provisions stipulated that property would be equally divided in the case of divorce. Nonetheless, their husbands effectively controlled land allotted to women. Patriarchal familial relationships in the Confucian tradition seemed to remain intact. The Marriage Law of 1950 legalized marriage, denounced patriarchal authority in the household and granted both sexes equal rights to file for divorce. The second and most prominent element of the strategy was integrating women into economic development. The PRC ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women in 1980 and enacted the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests in 1992. However, open discrimination against women in China has continued to grow during the period of reform of the last 15 years. According to PRC government surveys, women's salaries have been found to average 77% of men's, and most women employed in industry work in low-skill and low-paying jobs. An estimated 70 to 80% of workers laid off as a result of downsizing in factories have been women, and, although women make up 38% of the work force, they are 60% of the unemployed. At job fairs, employers openly advertise positions for men only, and university campus recruiters often state that they will not hire women. Employers justify such discrimination by saying that they cannot afford the benefits they are required to provide for pregnant women, nursing mothers and infants. The proportion of women to men declines at each educational tier, with women comprising some 25% of undergraduates in universities. Institutions of higher education that have a large proportion of female applicants, such as foreign language institutes, have been known to require higher entrance exam grades from women. Although China has a law mandating compulsory primary education, increasing numbers of rural girls are not being sent to school. Rural parents often do not want to "waste" money on school fees for girls who will "belong" to another family when they marry. According to official statistics, about 70% of illiterates in China are female. Women's employment was viewed as a prerequisite for emancipation from bourgeois structures as embodied in the patriarchal family. Furthermore, at the core of the CCP's strategy for political consolidation was economic reconstruction and rural development. The full participation of women was not only an ideological imperative but a pragmatic one. Third, the All-China Women's...
Women’s RightsWomen have suffered throughout history. Angelina Grimke, Sarah Grimke, Catherine Beecher and Margaret Fuller wrote letters to express the importance of women’s rights. Often comparing women’s rights to slavery, each letter stressed the importance of equal rights for all. I never knew women were oppressed that badly. The letters these women wrote were based on moralrights, observation of injustice, and suppression in society. Each letter written expanded my knowledge on women’s rights. Although each wrote letters, the effectiveness of the writer’s point of view made some essays more effective at proving their point than others. Throughout this paper I will summarize, compare and contrast, and analyze each letter written to determine which paper effectively persuaded their reader.
Angelina Grimke wrote “Human Rights Not Founded on Sex, Letter to Catharine Beecher” in 1837 to express the need for recognition for women’s rights. Grimke’s essay talks about human rights, which she relates to slavery. She related women’s rights and slavery by their moral rights, or moral nature she also described it, and how all men have moral nature so therefore all men have rights, “When I look at human beings as moral beings, all distinction in sex sinks to...
...Abortion and the Reproductive Rights of Women
Abortion and the Reproductive Rights of Women
Abortion is a very controversial topic in today’s society. It is defined as the removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy. Nowadays, there are many reasons why a woman may choose to terminate her pregnancy. Reasons that are common, but not limited to the following include: inadequate finances to support a baby, parents not being ready for the responsibility that comes with motherhood, teenage pregnancy, health problems with either the mother or the unborn baby, or pregnancy caused by rape. In third world countries, a woman may terminate a baby if it is a girl, because society is man-based. There are many reasons that abortion is chosen.
The issue of abortion relates to Women and Gender Studies 100 because “the fact is that women have been trapped. Reproduction is used, consciously or not, as a means to control women, to limit their options and to make them subordinate to men." (Dr. Nafis Sadik, UN Population Fund). Control over reproduction is a basic need and a basic right for all women.
The issue of abortion is an on-going debate. Pro-choice groups believe that a woman should have access to whatever health care she needs and that she should have control over her own body. Pro-life groups believe that the embryo or...
...“Women’s Rights Throughout The Ages"
The Feminist Movement of America has been around now for over a century. The Movement has helped women all over the United States gain freedom and the rights of a man. The Women’s Liberation Movement was very important because it has altered this country in many ways, including, the formation of NAWSA, Susan B. Anthony fighting for her rights, and Roe V. Wade was enacted.
Twowomen, named Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott, were actually the first women to begin what is known as today as the Women’s Rights Movements. Most people think Susan B. Anthony started the movement, but this is indeed a myth. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born on November 12th, in Jamestown, New York (Johnson Lewis, “Elizabeth Cady Stanton”). Stanton helped write The Declaration of Sentiments along with Lucretia Mott in the year 1848. Lucretia Mott, who served as a minister in 1818 (Johnson Lewis, “Lucretia Mott”), not only helped write The Declaration of Sentiments but also helped organize many women’s abolitionist societies in the 1840’s. In 1848, both Stanton and Mott held a convention centered on women’s rights, located in Seneca Falls, New York. While at the convention, The Declaration of Sentiments was signed by 68 women and 32 men. As quoted in The Declaration of Sentiments, there is a line that reads, “We hold these truths...
...The Evolution of WomenRights in Europe
The evolution of womenrights all over the world has helped form our society today. The role of women and men have transformed over the years, creating a somewhat balanced community. Women are now allowed to rise with succession or stay in poverty, along with men. Four centuries ago, the life of many were filled with struggle and agony, however the lives of allwomen were filled with boundaries and suffering. Without the womenrights movement all over the world, women would remain limited in the workplace, government, and homes to this day. Over the years, many women have elevated their status in the world, creating a broader mindset for the world’s society. Many believe that the womenright movement was a minor factor in world history. However, the womenrights movements are the source for the role of women and men in present day. Therefore in this research paper the question will be: how did the rights of women in Europe change between the years 1600 and 1800?
In the 1600s, the rights of all women were minuscule. The career aspects for women were narrow. According to the online article “Women in Tudor Times” by Tim Lambert,...
...Human Rights Essay
Human rights is a very important part of our World. Everyone wants and needs them. Every country throughout the world has different societies and governments with different rules. They are not always fair and can be very controlling and because of this people are not granted the rights they deserve. Big events in history have made us see and understand what could become when there are not many rights, because without them their would be no peace.
Human Rights are basically rights that all people are entitled to, regardless of religion, sex, race, language, and ethnic or national origin. Human rights include civil rights too, like life, freedom of expression and social, cultural, economic rights. Amnesty International and Universal Declaration of human rights are examples of global institutions that fight to protect people from the rights that are denied in their country like freedom, truth, dignity and justice. Many countries though, don’t get a say or a choice about their human rights as their societies government is very powerful and controlling.
Important events in history have led us to how we understand human rights today, because each big event tells us what rights where denied or accepted and we can look back on how the events happened. We can...
...Women’s Rights Organizations and GLBT Rights
Growing up as females has never been easy. Should all women be equal to their status, opportunities and rights? Every woman should have the ability to express their freedoms and rights, deserve equal treatment within their society and region, and every country needs to reinforce the rules for women. There is no dignity and respect for women universally. Gender equality is still out of reach for many women worldwide. Presently, women have gained legal rights throughout the world. The women’s rights movement changed society into what we know today.
I am very strong about women’s rights and there organizations just because of what they stand for and believe in. This is such a topic that has diverse meaning that is could mean so many different areas. Such as discrimination in a workforce, to abuse and even being married off young. The meaning of women’s rights is so wide spread across the globe that this topic is such a strong topic to write my essay about.
Presently, women have gained legal rights throughout the world. The women’s rights movement changed society into what we know today. One of the most famous women's organizations that has been leading the fight for women's rights since it...
...What Are WomenRights?
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favour of men and boys.
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights.
Women in Islam:
The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history culture of the Muslim world. The Quran does not explicitly state that men and women are equal, but states in 4:34 that "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend from their means. Therefore the righteous women...
... Stillion Southard 152
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON, "ADDRESS ON WOMAN'S RIGHTS" (September 1848) Belinda A. Stillion Southard University of Maryland Abstract: This essay attends to the transformative power of Elizabeth Cady Stanton's first major public speech, in which she grounds her arguments in natural rights, adopts an embellished speaking style, and employs a narrative form in her conclusion to invite her audience to participate in her prophetic vision of massive transformation. The ideological tensions promoted in Stanton's Address on Woman's Rights speech persisted throughout the woman's rights movement into the twentieth century. Key Words: natural rights, morality, sentimental style, prophetic persona Elizabeth Cady Stanton is considered the "greatest speaker" of the early woman's rights movement.1 She helped organize the first woman's rights convention, she drafted and presented the first woman's rights charter, and she founded multiple woman's rights organizations, remaining in the public eye as a leader of the movement for more than fifty years. Thus, her first formal public address, "Address on Woman's ...