While children can have similar mental health problems that adults have, like anxiety or depression, children's problems often have a different focus. Children may have difficulty with changes associated with growing up, such as beginning school. They may lag behind in comparison to how other children their age are progressing, or during stressful times, they may behave like a younger child would do. Even when children do have problems that also appear in adults, the problem tends to look different in a child. For example, anxious children are often very concerned about their parents and other family members. They may want to be near loved ones at all times to be sure that everyone is all right. This site covers the following topics:
Childhood anxiety occurs when a child is overly anxious, experiences separation anxiety, or avoids certain situations, people, or places. Usual signs of childhood anxiety include excessive distress when separated from home or from family members, worry about losing a loved one, worry about being lost or kidnapped, fear of going to school or away from home, difficulty sleeping away from home, and nightmares. Physical complaints such as stomachaches and headaches are common when the child is anticipating being separated from parents or other family members, such as spending the weekend with grandparents. These symptoms sometimes develop after an upsetting event in the child's life, such as the death of a loved one or a pet, beginning or changing schools, moving, or being ill. Some evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial for treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of childhood anxiety, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Anxiety Disorders of Association of America: Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents site has specific information about how anxiety disorders appear in children that may be different from adult anxiety. Encopresis
Encopresis is the inability to control bowel movements, resulting in defecation (bowel movement) in clothing, in the bed, or on the floor. Encopresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 4 years old, although frequently children younger than 4 also cannot control their bowels. Encopresis more commonly affects boys than girls. Some evidence suggests that behavior modification is beneficial for treatment of encopresis. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of encopresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. The Children's Medical Center at the University of Virginia ("Kid's Health") has an excellent website with more information about normal bowel habits and facts on encopresis. Enures:Enures is, commonly known as "bedwetting", is repeated urination during the day or night into bed or clothes. Enuresis is diagnosed in children who are at least 5 years old, although younger children often do have difficulty controlling urination. Behavioral treatment is well-established as a beneficial treatment for enuresis. Behavioral treatment usually involves the use of a urine alarm device and parent education. While other psychotherapies may be helpful for treatment of enuresis, they have not been evaluated scientifically in the same way as the treatment listed here. Click on the Fact Sheet on Bed-Wetting (PDF) for more facts on enuresis and some tips on helping your child with this problem. If you are interested in obtaining a urine alarm device, use your web browser to search for"urine alarm device" to find companies who sell these products on the internet.
Oppositional behavior includes things like losing one's temper, arguing with parents or teachers, refusing to follow rules, being mean or seeking revenge,...
Autism and Children
Professor Bruce Cameron
July 22, 2007
Abstract: Autism is a brain development disorder that is found in children usually before the age of three. Autism affects children and their “social interactions, impaired communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior.” (wikipedia.org) The number of children that have been diagnosed with autism is dramatically increasing. Boys are four times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with autism. Signs of autism include visual impairments such as lack of eye contact, speech impairments and limited speech, and restrictive interests and repetitive behavior. Treatment for children with autism includes therapy including behavior therapy, medications, and special education programs.
It has recently made headlines with its startling new statistics. Currently three to six out of every 1,000 children will be diagnosed with Autism. Boys are four times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with autism. (ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism) This startling statistic has been increasing dramatically since the 1980’s. (see graph on page 7) Some protest this is because of more efficient diagnosis and public awareness. Others contend that it is because of vaccines that are given. There is still a lot of information that is still unknown about Autism.
Autism affects the development of the brain. It...
...DSM-IV-(TR) : Autism Spectrum Disorders
Type 299.0 Autistic Disorder
Type 298.0 Asperger’s Syndrome
Type 298.0 Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
Autism is a complex developmental disability that causes problems with social interaction and communication. Symptoms usually start before age three and can cause delays or problems in many different skills that develop from infancy to adulthood.Disorders included in the Autism Spectrum are Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Rett’s syndrome and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder are among the list of related disorders, but are not included in this spectrum. There are no treatments bio-medically, or behaviorally that can completely cure Autism Spectrum Disorders, however, certain medications along with abstract therapies can help eliminate some of the common symptoms. Many children can go on to live simple, and normal lives, however, some cases are so severe that they may be dependent on other people’s assistance into adulthood.
Description of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autism comprises a clinically diverse group of disorders, referred to as “autism spectrum disorders”, that share common disabilities such as impaired social relationships,...
• Behavior disorders
o Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
o Conduct Disorder
o Oppositional Defiant Disorder
• Separation/anxiety disorder
• Elimination disorders
• Disorders in cognitive, motor, and communication skills
o Learning disorders
Reading disorder (dyslexia)
• Deficits in ability to read
• Deficits in mathematics skills
Disorder of written expression
• Deficits in the ability to write
o Motor skills disorders
Developmental coordination disorder
• Deficits in the ability to walk, run, hold on to objects
o Communication disorders
Expressive language disorder
• Deficits in the ability to express oneself through language
Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder
• Deficits in the ability both to express oneself through language and to understand the language of others
• Use of speech sounds in appropriate for age or dialect
• Sever problems in word fluency
• Mental retardation
o Mild, moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation
• Pervasive developmental disorders
o Rett’s disorder
...fun for them by incorporating their interests into the activity. This means they can start to develop quicker and with the help of someone they have a positive relationship with.
Having a positive relationship with a child will mean you know them well, their personality, their emotions, the little things. Therefor you can easily pick up on a difference in body language to know if there is something wrong, and also you begin to know what facial expression means what and so can address any issues quicker. Also with a positive relationship the child will feel like they can come to you and this is important so that they do not keep anything inside and instead share and resolve the issue so they feel calm again and happiness is essential in childhood.
A positive relationship is built through trust. It’s the little things you do that helps you build up a positive relationship with the child. For example:
- Giving them praise for doing something good
- Giving them a cuddle when they need it
- Helping and supporting them through the daily routine
- Keeping them safe and feeling secure
- having a positive relationship with their parents.
All of these are ways to build and maintain a relationship with the child or young person and their career. Children and young people like consistency and stability, they like what they know and as long as you can be or are there for them consistently, and are positive towards them they will begin to form a bond with you....
...used both indoors and outdoors.
It is considered important that children are given opportunities to develop their gross motor skills indoors as well as outdoors. Such opportunities may be provided by designated areas such as a soft play area.
Children with additional special needs may have limited play opportunities. It is the settings role to ensure that they can do as many activities as possible, for example, by adapting equipment.
5. Describe ways to ensure that personal attitudes or beliefs do not obstruct the quality of work.
Keeping your personal views and your work separate
Our own attitudes and beliefs shape us as individuals and make us ‘unique’. Our own attitudes and beliefs stem from a variety of sources including our own childhood, our prior experiences and the attitudes of those close to us.
Everyone is entitled to an opinion shaped by their beliefs, but it is important that the opinions of others shaped by their beliefs are not dismissed or challenged negatively. It is important to ensure that your own opinions and attitudes do not have an undesired impact on your work.
6. Describe the sorts of behaviour problems that should be referred to others and to whom this should be referred to.
Most children stop biting by three years. Biting is common in toddlers and is linked to frustration, as they are not yet talking. If older children are biting, there needs to be some investigation.
While most children will squabble and...
...EYMP1: Context and principles for early years provision
1.1. Explain the legal status and principles of the relevant early years framework/s, and how
national and local guidance materials are used in settings.
(Relevant early years framework: This refers to the frameworks for early years provision used within the relevant UK Home Nation.)
The early years framework in England is the EYFS. The early year’s foundation stage consists of a statutory curriculum for children from birth to 5years. All child care providers must use the early year’s foundation stage to ensure a consistent and flexible approach to children’s care, learning and development in order for the child to meet the five every child matters outcomes. The welfare requirement is enforced by Regulations made under Section 39, (1) (b) of the Childcare Act 2006.
There are six area covered by the early learning goals and educational programmes. Which are:-
-Personal, Social and Emotional Development
-Communication, Language and Literacy
-Problem-solving, Reasoning and Numeracy
-Knowledge and Understanding of the World
These six areas are equally important; all areas are delivered through planning, child-initiated and adult-led activities.
There are four distinct EYFS principles which guide the work of all practitioners. The elements of the principles into practice are,
:- A unique child
...Reading Assignment #3:
The Secret of Childhood
What is meant by “the spiritual embryo”? Do you think Montessori believed that nature or environment was more important to the growth and development of children?
I think when Montessori wrote about a spiritual embryo she meant that from the early conception of a child through its growth and development; the spirit self begins to open its eyes and grow just as any cell based embryo would grow.
I think Montessori saw nature as a fundamental part of who that child is; a human being. But she saw the environment as allowing for independent actuality of the child. By allowing the child to learn independence through a consist safe environment the child feels safe, trusted and familiar with their surroundings. Through this the child feels capable to learn.
Explain the term, “sensitive period” and give an example of a sensitive period at work.
According to Montessori in the book The Secret of Childhood a sensitive period refers to,
" a special sensibility which a creature acquires in its infantile state, while it is still in a process of evolution. It is a transient disposition and limited to the acquistion
of a particular trait. Once this trait, or characteristic, has been acquired, the special sensibility disappears"(Montessori p 38).
That said I think of the sensitive period as an instinct that each child of every ability is born with. As the child...
...The following questions can be written answers for your Certificate. Please complete the questions which your assessor has asked you to complete.
Unit 006 Contribute to the Support of Child and Young Person Development
2. Identify different observation methods and know why they are used. Additional Guidance: Different observation methods may include: Running records, Diary, Anecdotal, Time sampling, Event recording, Checklist, Narrative, Group, solo and 1-2-1 interaction, Observation with or without adults
There are many different observation methods which can be used. When you notice something interesting the child is doing or saying, you can use the running record method to record what is happening at the time.Another observation methods is to keep a diary, you can use this to keep a record of what children have done.You can also use the anecdotel method were you record information that has been passed on to you either by a member of staff or parents themselves.|
4. Suggest ways the identified development needs of a child or young person can be met in the work setting. Additional Guidance: Ways the identified development needs of a child or young person can be met in the work, setting, Meet individual needs (personalised), Reflect children’s interests and views, Through play for children in early years, Provide challenge and Flexible plans
Identified development needs of a child or young person can be met by Activities that children are interested...