Child Marriage: A Silent Health and Human Rights Issue
Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A human rights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school. Key words: Child marriage, Early marriage, Maternal mortality Child marriage, defined as marriage of a child under 18 years of age, is a silent and yet widespread practice. Today, over 60 million marriages include girls under the age of 18 years: approximately 31 million in South Asia, 14 million in sub-Saharan Africa, and 6.6 million in Latin America and the Caribbean (Figure 1). Each day, 25,000 girls are married and an anticipated 100 million girls will be married in 2012.1 Over 60% of girls are married under the age of 18 in some sub-Saharan countries and Bangladesh, and 40% to 60% of girls undergo child marriage in India (Figure 2).
Number of women aged 20–24 who were married or in union before age 18, by region (2006). CEE/CIS, Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Reproduced with permission from United Nations Children’s Fund. Progress ...
Percentage of women aged 20–24 who were married or in union before age 18 (1987–2006). Reproduced with permission from United Nations Children’s Fund. Progress for Children: A World Fit for Children Statistical Review. New York: ... Child marriage has been referred to as early marriage or child brides, but these terms are not optimal. Early marriage does not imply that children are involved, and the term is vague because an early marriage for one society may be considered late by another. The term child brides glorifies the tradition by portraying an image of joy and celebration. Most of these marriages are arranged by parents, and girls rarely meet their future husband before the wedding. The girls know that after the wedding they will move to their husband’s household, become the responsibility of their in-laws, and might not see their own family or friends for some time. Although child marriage includes boys, most children married under the age of 18 years are girls. In Mali, the ratio of married girls to boys is 72:1; in Kenya, it is 21:1; in Indonesia, it is 7.5:1; in Brazil, it is 6:1; and even in the United States, the ratio is 8:1.2–4 Go to:
Human and Children’s Rights
The United Nations and other international agencies have declared that child marriage violates human rights and children’s rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that individuals must enter marriage freely with full consent and must be at full age. In 1979, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women stated that child marriage is illegal. In 1989, the Convention on the Rights of the Child defined children as persons under the age of 18 years. Many countries passed laws changing the legal age of marriage to 18 years, but enforcement of these laws, and of laws requiring marriages to be registered, is weak.5 For example, although the legal age of marriage is 18 years, in Mali 65% of girls are married at a younger age; in Mozambique, it is 57%; and in India, it is 50% (Figure 3). In some parts of Ethiopia, although the legal age of marriage is 15 years, 50% of younger girls are married, and in Mali, 39% of younger girls are married. Furthermore, in some regions, an arranged...
...Childmarriage is a serious form of humanrights violation affecting young girls globally. It was estimated 10 million girls under the age of 18 get married every year (Bruce & Clark 2004) and according to Population Council Analysis of United Nations Country Data on Marriage (2002), more than 100 million girls will get married in the next decade if the current pattern persists. Girls who are disproportionately the most affected by this inhumane practice suffer tremendously. It is unreasonable such practice that robs away a girl's childhood can exist, considering the devastating effects such as physical and psychological damages, severe health consequences and denial of personal development.
1.1 Physical and Psychological Damages
Many young girls who are being forced into marriage face abuse and violence as their daily reality, yet most of them believe that a husband is justified in beating his wife (Jenson & Thornton 2003). For example, in Kenya, 36 percent of girls married before 18 consider the action of a husband beating his wife is acceptable as compared to 20 percent of married women (UNICEF 2005). Prolonged violence behaviours towards child brides including coercive sex, verbal abuse, slapping and beatings cause them to be emotionally affected and undergo post-traumatic stress. According to Khan and Lynch (1997), such symptoms are like...
ChildMarriageChildmarriage is India is an important humanrights violation because many girls are suffering throughout their marriage. Girls’ ages 3-18 marry older men ages 30-80. Parents send their daughters to get married because they need money to help their family. It is very depressing to see young girls marry a stranger they never met. The addition problem with childmarriage is their health risks. One solution is, people in India need to show a documentaries to the government of how many girls suffers in childmarriage. Secondly, the government in India should make a law banning parents from forcing a childmarriage. In addition, women in India should be united. Finally, a way to prevent childmarriage is education. This is important to me because this is a humanrights violation and childmarriage needs to stop immediately.
The addition problem with childmarriage is their health risk. Once when they get married girls are taken to their husband’s household, where they need to be accepted as a wife. While they are with their husband in a new environment rather than being with their...
...What is childmarriage?
Child/Early marriage refers to any marriage of a child younger than 18 years old, in accordance to Article 1 of the Convention on the Right of the Child. While childmarriage affects both sexes, girls are disproportionately affected as they are the majority of the victims. Their overall development is compromised, leaving them socially isolated with little education, skills and opportunities for employment and self-realisation. This leaves child brides more vulnerable to poverty, a consequence of childmarriage as well as a cause.
Childmarriage is now widely recognised as a violation of children's rights, a direct form of discrimination against the girl child who as a result of the practice is often deprived of her basic rights to health, education, development and equality. Tradition, religion and poverty continue to fuel the practice of childmarriage, despite its strong association with adverse reproductive health outcomes and the lack of education of girls.
Child and forced marriage
A forced marriage is defined as a marriage "conducted without the valid consent of one or both parties...
...Present time, childmarriage is a curse in the global society. Childmarriage is a violation of humanrights. In most cases young girls get married off to significantly older men when they are still children. Childmarriages must be viewed within a context of force and coercion, involving pressure and emotional blackmail, and children that lack the choice or capacity to give their full consent. Childmarriage must therefore always be considered forced marriage because valid consent is absent - and often considered unnecessary. Childmarriage is common practice in India, Niger, Bangladesh, Pakistan Guinea, Burkina Faso, Africa and Nepal, where mostly girls are married below the age of 18.
Consequences of childmarriageChildmarriage has its own worse effect on the young girls, society, her children and health. Young girls who get married will most likely be forced into having sexual intercourse with their, usually much older, husbands. This has severe negative health consequences as the girl is often not psychologically, physically and sexually mature. Child brides are likely to become pregnant at an early age and there is a strong correlation between the age of a mother and maternal mortality...
Throughout the world, marriage is considered to be a happy moment in everyone’s life and is a moment of celebration but sadly, the practice of childmarriage gives no such reason for celebration. Many young boys and girls get married before they can reach the age of 18. This shocking act takes place for a number of reasons. In order to get benefitted socially, physically and to decrease financial burdens, many parents and families throughout the world, promote the marriage of their young sons and daughters. Throughout the years, we have seen that childmarriage targets more girls than boys. Boys are affected as well but in totality, the number of victims and the intensity of their sufferings are way higher for girls. After their marriage, girls live an exclusive life where they do not receive any kind of education, they are forced for performing huge amounts of household works, are impregnated without their approval and are forced to take the big responsibility of raising and taking care of a child when they themselves are not mature enough and are still kids.
What problems can childmarriage lead to?
Childmarriage is caused when two young or one young and one adult individuals are forced into the institution of marriage without their consent....
...that support the fulfilment of rights and choices of individuals with dementia while minimising risk of harm
RIGHTSHumanrights; independence; respect; freedom to do what I want; to protect myself and my property; to be heard; to vote; to express my sexuality; right to an education/work.
RISK Danger; part of life; unacceptable or acceptable; who’s risk? risky activities; risk of harm; injury; protection.
CHOICE Independence; ‘my life’; variety of; priorities; making the right choice; making the wrong choice; what to eat; what to wear; relationships; place to live.
HARM Danger; pain; intentional or unintentional; long lasting or short lasting; reputation; sense of identity/safety.
ABUSE Physical; emotional; ﬁnancial; sexual; neglect; law; vulnerable; prison; shocking.
TRUST Friendship; feeling – safe, secure, positive; enabling; back up; care; love. Money in Trust
DIGNITY Free from embarrassment; acknowledged as a human being; a way of being/carrying oneself; sense of self; lack of dignity – abuse, damage, pain, fear
1.1 Explain the impact of key legislation that relates to fulfilment of rights and choices and the minimising of risk of harm for an individual with dementia
HumanRights Act of 1998 - This Act became law on the 9th November 1998 and mostly came into force on 2 October 2000. Its aim is to...
...Cherry Ann Z. Jara
“ ‘Ang Ina’ relates two facets of maternal health : childhealth and single motherhood. The glimpse into maternal and child care takes into consideration that there are social, political,economic, cultural and environmental factors that serve as barriers to raising healthy, positive children. Then, the story focuses on the trials of motherhood and single parenting.”
These were the exact lines written on the synopsis of the video- documentary. Truly, several factors are contributing to the multiple burdens of mothers when the issue of maternal health and child care is concerned. As mentioned above, one of these factors is in the social aspect; mothers of today are at risks during child birth due to hemorrhage (the topmost cause of death among mothers) where uterus is not contracting firmly after delivery. In some cases, there is a retained blood clot inside the uterus which disallows a firm, tight contraction. Manually expressing the blood clot by squeezing the fundus will usually control bleeding from this source. Statistical study shows that 230 women for every 100,000 live births die because of this maternal occurence. Countless mothers are losing their lives in just a single glimpse without given the chance to fight. What made it more sorrowful is the fact that this sudden death would yield a great effect on the...
...Looking at the United Nations, humanrights are freedoms that are believed to universal humanrights that protect individuals and groups against actions which can interfere with fundamental freedoms and human dignity. According to the universal declaration of humanrights in Article 5, “No one shall be subjected to torture or, to cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”
Eritrea, a country in the Horn of Africa covers 45,000 square miles with a population of 6.4 million, suffers attacks on humanrights every day. Eritrea’s 30-year struggle for independence ended in 1991, with Eritrean rebels defeating government forces. According to the World Fact Book, “ISAIAS Afworki has been Eritrea's only president since independence; his rule, particularly since 2001, has been highly autocratic and repressive. His government has created a highly militarized society by pursuing an unpopular program of mandatory conscription into national service, sometimes of indefinite length.” Due to the repressive ruling style of Eritrea’s president, this has let to the governments leaders to be able to do anything they want.
According to HumanRights Watch, “Eritrea, has documented serious patterns of humanrights violations in Eritrea. These abuses include arbitrary arrest, torture, appalling detention...