According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) a new generation of children is being deprived of the chance to take their rightful place in the society and economy of the 21st Century. The ILO has proposed that ‘child labour’ will disappear in a decade. If this happens well and good. But in reality the situation is worsening. One in eight children in the world is exposed to the worst forms of child labour which endanger children’s physical, mental health and moral well being.
In many countries children lives are plagued by armed conflict, child labour, sexual exploitation and other human rights violations. Children living in rural areas have fewer opportunities to obtain good quality education. They have less access to services than children living in cities. The UN Convention on the Rights of Children (CRC) (Article 38) has explicitly prohibited person under age 18 being recruited into the armed forces or direct participating in hostility. In spite of this special provision under CRC, many countries still involve children below 18 years in hostilities. Child labour keeps children out of school and is a major barrier to development. To make the anti child labour law a reality, poverty and unemployment need to be eliminated. Unless the standard of living improves at the lower levels of the society, children will be forced to work. Many middle and upper class families do not hesitate to engage young boys and girls to help them with household cores. The middle class family feels by employing a child below 14 years they are helping poor families to increase their earnings for daily livelihood.
Age of the Child.
According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child article (i) defines “The child as every human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier”. The Indian Penal Court (IPC) defines the child as being 12 years of age. Indian Traffic Prevention Act 1956 defines a “Minor” as a person who has reached the age of 16 years. Section 376 of IPC which punishes the perpetrators of the crime of rape defines the age of consent to be 16 years of age. Section 82 and 83 of the IPC states that a child under the age of 7 years cannot be guilty of an offence and further a child under 12 years is not considered to have attained sufficient maturity to have an understanding of the nature of the Act and the consequences of his conduct. Juvenile justice Act 2002 defines a male minor as being below 16 years and a female minor as being below 18 years of age From the above definitions, it could be seen, in the Indian context the age of an Individual in order to be determined as a “Child” is not uniformly defined. The consequences of this are that it offers various gaps in legal procedures which are used by the guilty to escape punishment. Indian Scenario of Child Labour & Legislation
According to the UN Study about 150 Million children of age group five to 14 are working in various industries in India. They are found working in road-side restaurants, tea stalls and shops, at construction sites and in factories. Girls suffer labour exploitation to such a degree that million of girls die before they reach the age of 15. They are paid a pittance as low as Rs.20 per day and many live in shops or work places where they are subjected to various forms of exploitation. Besides the work they are abused physically, mentally and sexually by the scurrilous task masters. Mafia gangs bring children for “Begging” in urban cities. A child beggar of aged between five and ten collects the maximum. With a burn scar or decapitation they can earn more. As they grow older their earnings decrease. As a consequence they graduate to be big -time traders involved in drug peddling, pick pocketing, robbery and prostitution. A child beggar will only be paid 10% of his earnings of Rs.300 to 500 a day. If he fails to meet the...
ChildLabour in The Philippines
Childlabour can be defined as a part of a community which is forced or participate to work even if they are paid or not. Which are harmful to their health and dispossess them the chances to education, development, and a healthy living. Childlabour is one the major problems here in Camarines sur. Since we are a third world country, even if we are not capable to do work, we are obligated to find a job to and sustain our needs. It is linked to poverty and lack of decent and productive work. It makes the children away from school.
The measurement of child work cannot be divorced from its
economic and social significance. traditionally, a welfare perspective
has been adopted, by which childlabour is regarded spective has
been adopted, by which childlabour is regarded as an evil to be
eliminated. But it is difficult to make a general welfare judgement on
the work of children that can be maintained across time and cultures.
In many societies, particularly in low-income rural areas, a gradual
incorporation of the child into work activity occurs between the ages
of about 5 and 15, so that, whether for good or for bad, child work
is part of the process of socialisation. Some types of work are a source
of pride, atatus and perhaps independence...
The role of government in childlabourChild labor is not an easy issue to resolve, it is globally. Children trading something on the streets, separated from families, kept out of schools, suffering from injuries, even dying because of hard work. It is something that should be changed. Therefore I agree that government should role this field. I choose to write about this theme, because government and society must do a lot more to help children. It would be great if government could reduce childlabour to a minimum.
Childlabour was employed to varying extents through most of history, especially during the Industrial Revolution, working in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. World is progressing and changing, but childlabour is still common in some parts of the world like Asia, Africa. That shows that question of childlabour should be undertaken tight by the government. Nowadays there are organizations made to help children around the world, working for their rights, survival, development, education and protection. One of those is UNICEF (United Nations International Children`s Emergency Fund), which statistic data shows that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of childlabour in the world with more than one-third of...
...Childlabour is a major problem in India. It is a great challenge that the country is facing. The prevalence of it is evident by the child work participation rates which are higher in India than in other developing countries. Estimates cite figures of childlabour between 60 and 115 million working children in India, the highest number in the world (Human Rights Watch, 1996). It is basically rooted in poverty.
It is poverty that forces a child to earn money to support his family. Though it is prevalent in the whole of the country, the problem is acute in socio- economically weaker States like UP, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh and North-Eastern States. Besides poverty, lack of education, and accessible sources of credit forces poor parents to engage their children as childlabour. The big challenge for India, as a developing country is to provide nutrition, education and health care to these children.
There are more children under the age of fourteen in India than the entire population of the United States. Over 85 per cent of this childlabour is in the country’s rural areas, working in agricultural activities, such as farming, livestock rearing, forestry and fisheries. This labour is outside the formal sector, and also outside industry. Moreover, nine out of ten children working...
...UNICEF summarized the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child as spelling out the “basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life”. This convention is almost universally ratified. Despite this, childlabour (something that in many cases violates at least three of the non-negotiable terms laid out in the Convention of the Rights of the Child) remains rampant in most of the world. Despite this being such a widely known (and publicized) issue, the most recent estimate states that “127 million boys and 88 million girls are involved in childlabour with 74 million boys and 41 million girls involved in the worst forms”. Childlabour is an extremely complex, multi-faceted issue with roots including corruption of power, racism, sexism, cultural traditions and an uneven distribution of global wealth. In light of this, it is my contention that the international community is making strides to a future without childlabour through targeting multiple angles and causes behind childlabour.
This paper will try to analyze individual instruments the international community (ILO, UN) is using in its attempt to eradicate child...
...social, and political effects of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain in the 19th Century?
The Industrial Revolution transformed Great Britain into the export capital of the world, however, the social, economic, and political effects of child labor in textile mills in the 19th century as a result of the Industrial Revolution were detrimental to Great Britain. Child labor caused an unsafe environment for the children, it lowered wages and stole jobs from adults, and caused many failed attempts from the government to try to control it.
Child labor in textile mills was very demanding for the young workers. The average child worked about 14 to 16 hours a day, from Monday to Saturday. On Sunday, which was usually a worker’s only day off, some children were forced to return to the mill and clean the machines. Boys and girls had different jobs, although both were demanding and dangerous. A boy worked as a scavenger, meaning he crawled under the whirling machines to retrieve any dropped cotton. His hair, clothing, or body could become tangled and caught in the machine resulting in severe injury or death. A girl’s job was a piecer, she would repair broken thread. In 1841, a study showed that one child walked an average of 30 miles a day from just walking around the mill doing his or her job. James Myles, a young mill boy wrote, “The factory owners were in charge of feeding...
...Third-World Families at Work: Child Labor or Child Care?
I am a citizen of India. My soul wouldn’t be satisfy if I directly started saying something about this Pakistan child labor case. Everyone knows Pakistan is a struggling and developing country as is India and some other countries such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Nepal, and Mexico. When I read this case I thought a lot about it, then I tried to compare this situation with my Home Country. I didn’t see that much difference between Child labor in my country and in the Pakistan Child Labor Case. I have seen this situation in my life. Probably my thinking is also the same as contractor manager Mr. Mohammad Ahmed. I know how developing countries are struggling to become developed countries because I spent 22 years of my life in a developing country. It is very hard for all developing countries to be a developed country in a few years. Developing countries can’t be developed countries just by improving one major field; they need to make progress in many areas. Whenever I think about developing countries, I wonder why all of these countries are struggling to reach at developed level. The answer may be poverty, corruption, bribe, or terrorism to name a few. It may be all of these reasons combined. Think about it this way: if one country is suffering from all these major problems, how can that country be a developed country? Is there any relevant...
...You can't regulate child labor. You can't regulate slavery. Some things are just wrong.
Child labor and poverty are inevitably bound together and if you continue to use the labor of children as the treatment for the social disease of poverty, you will have both poverty and child labor to the end of time.
"Small hands can handle a pen better. Lend your support to abolish child labor."
Eradicate child labor and aspire for a better future"
World revolves around the children. Childrens' future revolves around education. Stop Child Labor"
So open your eyes child, let's be on our way. Broken windows and ashes are guiding the way.
Childhood itself is scarcely more lovely than a cheerful, kindly, sunshiny old age.
There is no trust more sacred than the one the world holds with children. There is no duty more important than ensuring that their rights are respected, that their welfare is protected, that their lives are free from fear and want and that they can grow up in peace."
"Children do not constitute anyone's property: they are neither the property of their parents nor even of society. They belong only to their own future freedom."
Feeding a child at school is such a simple thing – but it works miracles.
The ultimate test of a moral society
is the kind of world that it leaves to its children.”
You must work - we must all work to make the world...
International Labour Organisation (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind childlabour. For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household income. Other scholars such as Harsch on African childlabour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global childlabour have reached the same conclusion.
Lack of meaningful alternatives, such as affordable schools and quality education, according to ILO, is another major factor driving children to harmful labour. Children work because they have nothing better to do. Many communities, particularly rural areas where between 60-70% of childlabour is prevalent, do not possess adequate school facilities. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.
Young girl working on a loom in Aït Benhaddou, Morocco in May 2008.
In European history when childlabour was common, as well as in contemporary childlabour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have...