From 1945 to the year 2000, we saw many changing patterns of migration undertake across all nations for various reasons. A series of events in Australia’s history have lead up to the change in migration patterns. From the middle of the nineteenth century, Australia was a destination for migrants. From 1945, 6.8 million people came to Australia as new settlers. The controversy surrounding the early migration is said to be the introduction of the ‘White Australia’ policy which was one of the first legislative actions of the new Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
The effect of this policy was to reduce the extent of non-European migration so that by 1947, when the post-war immigration policy was being initiated, the Asian component of Australia’s population was estimated to be less than 0.4 per cent of the total. However, not until 1967, when the policy had soon been changed to allow the entry of skilled non-Europeans, was there any significant growth. With Australia abandoning the White Australia Policy it has opened the door for countries such as Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia to come to Australia. From the year 1945 to 1949, Ben Chifley took the position the Australian Prime Minister. He established the Federal Department of Immigration because he found that Australia was being under populated and needed a larger population for defence. He figured that a 1% population increase would achieve all this.
Migration in Australia increased largely at the end of World War 2, when many millions in Europe were displaced from their homes. Not only this, but at the same time, Australia became short of labour and soon many believed that population growth in Australia was essential for the future. Australia was in an agreement with the United Kingdom, some European countries and the International Refugee Organisation to encourage migrants to come to Australia. In the year 1950, 200 000 people had arrived. The 1970s was when the Vietnam War was coming to a...
...Jonathan Chao 11/15/12
AP Human Geography Period 2/ Ms. Graef
Population and Migration Assignment Re-write
Botswana, located at 22.9906°S and 25.1557°E, is known to be the most advanced country in Africa, where poverty is common and at its worst. What makes this country covered, with a large wilderness and desert sand, a middle-income nation is its abundance of diamonds. Almost half of its economy is run off the selling of diamonds. It is the world’s number one diamond selling country, making Russia second. But with the Kalahari Desert covering most of Botswana, it is difficult for agriculture to exist but cattle. Botswana’s government is a multi-party democracy that makes it free of corruption. With little to no corruption in the government, there is a good human rights record. Botswana may be the best in Africa, but there is a different result when compared to the rest of the world.
581,730 squared km of earth make up Botswana which 2,098,018 people are in. 2,098,018 people may seem to be a big number, but if you compare it to the world which has more than 7 billion people, it’s clearer that it makes up a small percentage. Botswana only makes up of 0.3 percent out of the world population. In Botswana, there are 3.7 people per kilometer, but the physiological density, which is 463, is totally different. Botswana is mostly made up of desert which is not arable so the physiological density is much higher. Because Botswana is...
...felt that Australia needed an economic boost and an increase in the population was the way to do so. In a speech to parliament in 1944, Immigration Minister Arthur Calwell expresses the need for migrants; “…Only by filling this land can we establish a title to hold it” (House of Representatives, Debates, 1944, vol. HR177, p.935). The Chifley Labor government’s aim in the late 1940s was to attract British migrants to Australia with free passage or “assisted migration”. So the government used advertisements to go after the British in the 1950’s by using positive images such as “sunshine and smiles” to attract more citizens. The idea of owning your own home and living in a laid-back, liberal community appealed to some and so the government assisted the migrants in coming to Australia by providing them with accommodation, work and support. Yet the propaganda of “sunshine, salesmen and subsidies...” did not attract the numbers of British migrants needed to achieve the goals set, and so the Australian government broadened its migration policy to other areas of Europe.
Australia began a policy to attract migrants from Europe, in particular from Greece and Italy and the Baltic States – since many of these people wanted to start of a fresh new life after the devastation that WW2 had caused. The Australian governments saw this as an advantage as many of these people could pass as British and were a big boost to Australia’s workforce. With a preference...
.... Reasons of Migration
It would never be an easy decision for a person to leave his country of birth and look for
his fortune elsewhere. There are a number of reasons why migrants leave their countries.
These so-called push factors exist in the poorer or conflict-weary regions of the world
and some of them are defined as:
• dissolution and disintegration of multicultural states, accompanied by religious
and ethnic conflicts;
• increase in natural disasters, the progressive destruction of major ecosystems
and the associated global warming as a result of the industrial economic system
• discrimination on various grounds;
• political instability and wars, continuing armed conflicts (including civil wars);
• economic situation;
• uncontrollable population growth; vast differences in population and economic
• impoverishment, as a result of failing social welfare systems (EUROPOL,
In turn, there are accompanying pull factors that make some countries target for
• shortage of manpower;
• comprehensive social security;
• positive economic situation;
• democratic systems of government, political and social stability;
• historical links;
• common languages;
• existing communities;
• expectations (EUROPOL, 2004).
There are a number of reasons of migration. For instance Castles defines
migration taking place due to environmental degradation and explores links...
...Immigration to the United States of America has been an ongoing process since colonizing America. The changingpattern of immigration has varied throughout the last century. These changes were brought on by new immigration laws, political, economical, and demographic pressures. The most profound changes in immigration patterns occurred after the Immigration Law Reform in 1965 resulting in immigration from countries that did not send immigrants before, and a dramatic increase of immigrants from previous sending countries. For example Europe, which accounted for two-thirds of legal immigrants in the 1950s, added only 15 percent in the 1980s.
Modern immigrants groups after 1965 came from Vietnam, the Philippines, South East Asia, Latin America and the latest major influx from Africa. The increase in Asian immigration has been the most dramatic. While the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 had ended immigration from China, immigration from Japan and the Philippines to Hawaii and the continental United States continued to the early 1900s. Japanese Immigration had been restricted by the Gentleman's Agreement of 1907, and the immigration Acts of 1924 ended all Asian immigration by establishing a fixed quota in the proportion of the national population in 1880. Before the Immigration and Naturalization Act Amendments of 1965, the Asians made up only 6 percent of immigrants. After 1965 the Asians took advantage of the immigration law. According...
...A number of Star Visitor races evolved to intelligent life forms on their respective planets across the universe. Some of these civilizations are millions of years old.
Other intelligent races "out there" developed not solely from evolution, but from other races' "missionary" sowing of intelligent life on planets they discovered whose indigenous biota had evolved to the point where one or more animal species could provide a suitable anatomy and physique for engineering in high intelligence and spirituality.
Thus, these Star Nations vary, some naturally evolved, others with development accelerated through bioengineering by older, more advanced races. Either way, many of these Star Nations operate like Peace Corps workers, going about the galaxy, exploring, and trying to do good wherever they can.
The Star Nations decided to accelerate evolution on Earth. They selected a promising Primate order representative to take reproductive material samples from, crossed it with some of their own DNA, and reinserted it in the primate mother, so that the resulting offspring would be more intelligent.
After several iterations of effort, the Visitors around 275,000 years ago achieved a hybrid with a bit of their very high intelligence, a smattering of their highly-developed psychic abilities and spirituality, and sufficient dexterity and coordination to be capable of fashioning tools and intricate designs. In other words, they had achieved Homo Sapiens.
This phase of...
...Consumer classification and consumption patterns
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad
How the consumers consume and for what purposes, drives the producers as to how they extract resources and create products. The consumers are classified on the basis of consumption patterns which are ascertained by observing their actual behaviour in a market in various purchase situations. These patterns are explained by multiple factors like tastes and preferences of people, price of product etc. But the most crucial factor is the income of consumers.
During the last two decades, the norms and institutions all over the world have changed in ways that has either encouraged or permitted higher inequality in incomes. Under the conventional view, rising inequality is a side effect of economic progress as the growth rate is different in different countries. The other reasons for differences in incomes are level of education, priorities of people i.e. they prefer job profile with more money or status, politics and policies of a country, say, different labor laws in different countries etc.
Apart from differences in incomes, another important factor influencing consumption patterns is tastes and preferences of consumer. Though the taste is becoming international, consumer’s choices and preferences still vary from place to place and hence the consumption...
...Using information from the items and elsewhere, examine the reasons for changingpatterns of marriage, cohabitation and childbearing in the last 40 years (24 marks)
According to the Office for National Statistics, the highest number of couples in 1972 was 480,000 and was due to the baby boom generation of the 1950’s reaching marriageable age and the fact that people chose to marry at a younger age compared to pervious generations. However the annual number of marriages in England and Wales then went into decline and reached an all-time low in 2005 when only 244,710 couples got married. This decline in the total number of marriages has been paralleled by a decline in marriage rates. In 1994, the marriage rate was 11.4 but has decline to 10.3 by 2004. The male rate declined from 36.3 in 1994 to 27.8 in 2004 whilst the female rate declined from 30.6 to 24.6.
Fears about what marriage statistics reveal are exaggerated for four reasons:
People are delaying marriage rather than rejecting it. Most people will marry at some point in their lives, but people are now marrying later in life, probably after a period of cohabitation. Women may delay marriage because they want to develop their careers and enjoy a period of independence.
The BSAS indicates that most people, whether single, divorced or cohabiting, still see marriage as a desirable life-goal. People also generally believe that having children is best done in the context of marriage and few...
...CONVERSATION AND DISCUSSION
CHANGINGPATTERNS OF LEISURE
8.1.1. Choosing a route. Packing: hike, to go on a hike, to go hiking, hiker; picnic; walking tour, walker; to travel (to go) on foot; to wander; to roam; route, to choose a route; to discuss plans, to plan a trip; guide-book; light (hand) luggage, heavy luggage; rucksack; knapsack; hamper, basket; to pack clothes (supplies, cooking utensils, etc.) into a rucksack, to pack a rucksack; damp- proof; sleeping-bag, the spirit of the journey; to be open to all impressions; an inveterate anti-picnicker.
8.1.2. Nature. Weather: landscape, scenery; countryside, hilly or level countryside; picturesque; vegetation; grove; slope; steep hill;
meditative silence of the morning; to wind, winding; the weather forecast (to forecast the weather); constant (steady) rain (wind); dull, wet, damp, cloudy, foggy, windy weather (day); it is pouring; to drizzle, it is beginning to drizzle; fog, thick fog, mist; to be (to get) wet through; the things are damp, soaked; the wind rises, drives the clouds away, brings rain, drops; it's a hot, stuffy day; the heat is stifling, unbearable; there is hardly a breath of air; not a leaf is stirring; it's 30 (degrees) above (zero) in the shade; a day to tempt anyone out.
8.1.3. Meals: meals in the open air; cooking utensils; frying-pan; saucepan; pot; kettle, tea-pot, to get a kettle to boil; tin, tinned food, tin-opener; pocket knife;...