War on Censorship
After being assigned a school project, a young high school student walks into the library with plans on researching about his topic before starting. It’s a biology project about the mating rituals of animals, which was a topic that struck his interest. So he boots up the computer, signs in, and starts surfing the web and different search engines for his topic. Every site he clicks on, however, has been blocked. Anything having to do with mating and breeding has been censored by the library as inappropriate material. What if this high school student doesn’t have internet at home? Being unable to look up his material at the library is sure to hinder his research. This would be a very common story if web censorship in the United States was a common thing, as it is in some countries. Censorship of hateful and inappropriate content seems good in theory but since inappropriate material is based on personal opinion and censors either don’t block everything or blocks harmless sites, it’s not practical and can only hinder web use.
The internet is a free-flow of ideas, facts, and opinions that anyone has access to as long as they have a computer and it allows information to travel faster than any other means of communication; nearly instantly across the world. This vast amount of information covers almost every topic one can think of and is available with a few taps of a keyboard or click of a mouse. By having access to such things, citizens of a country can hold their government accountable for its decisions, create new ideas, and be as creative as they want (Clinton). If, for instance, someone lives in a very Christian community but finds themselves questioning that religion, they can look up religious sites and decide what best fits their beliefs. Yet if religious sites are censored for fear of hateful content, how would one find what best fits their opinions and views? “The internet can help bridge divides between people of different faiths” (qtd. in Clinton) and that’s very true. The more information we have the more choices we have as an individual for our lifestyle.
The internet also allows one to voice their opinions in an open environment where anyone anywhere in the world can read it. With the creation of personal blogs and forums that allow one to post about their day to day life and opinions, it’s possible for anyone online to have a strong voice no matter who they are or where they’re from. The largest public response to a terrorist attack in India was organized by a thirteen year old boy who used social networking sites to organize blood drives (Clinton). Online, it doesn’t matter if someone’s unemployed, a politician, a doctor, a college drop-out or a young teenager. As long as good ideas are being presented, people will listen. This opens up opportunities to people of all circumstances regardless of the struggles they may have in life. “…The freedom to connect is like the freedom of assembly, only in cyberspace” (qtd. in Clinton). The web brings people together. It’s illegal to censor people in real life, so it should be the same online.
One should also consider the effectiveness of the censors themselves; do they work? Do filters block out what they’re supposed to without blocking anything else? In 2002 a court in Philadelphia decided that filters were unconstitutional because they don’t work. They allow some sites to go uncensored and block thousands of sites that contain no offensive material like a site for a Buddhist nun and the Knights of Columbus (Gottfried). With how vast the web is and how many topics are covered, it’s impossible to block all of the material one wishes to get rid of. There’s more to it than just the effectiveness, as well, and it’s a debate that’s been going on since internet filters were created. What is should be blocked and what shouldn’t? Most agree that pornography and inappropriate material shouldn’t be viewed by minors, but no one can come to a firm agreement...
...February 25, 2014
Legal Brief Assignment No. 2
Dan is a trained paralegal who works for Erie Bank in Lakewood, Ohio. One day, Mary walks into the bank to apply for a mortgage loan to purchase a new house. She and Dan have a long conversation about Mary taking out a mortgage. Mary is concerned that were she to default on her loan, her credit would be destroyed. In response, Dan tells her:
Don’t worry about it. If you don’t pay your loan, the only remedy the bank has is to foreclose on the house. The bank cannot go after you personally and your credit score will be unaffected. I’ve been dealing with this issue for years and I’m telling you that this is the Ohio law on the matter.
Unfortunately, it turns out that Dan was incorrect. When Mary defaults on her loan the next year, her credit is badly hurt.
Whether, under Ohio Law, is Dan subject to a civil liability to Mary for his legal advice regarding her default on her mortgage loan, foreclosure, and bad credit rating? Did Dan practice unauthorized practice of law?
R.C. §4705.07 Unauthorized Practice:
(A) No person who is not licensed to practice law in this state shall do any of the following:
(1) Hold that person out in any manner as an attorney at law;
(2) Represent that person orally or in writing, directly or indirectly, as being authorized to practice law;
(3) Commit any act that is prohibited by the Supreme Court as being the unauthorized practice of law.
Dean of Edinboro University
What should be done with Professor Smut? Professor Smut should be fired from Edinboro University. For the following reasons he violated the First Amendment, academic freedom, and may have caused damage to the students. The First Amendment states that, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”
Professor Smut violated academic freedom, “The standard established in these cases requires a plaintiff who alleges a hostile environment to prove that sexual advances and comments are “sufficiently severe or pervasive ‘to alter the conditions of [the victim’s] employment and create an abusive working environment (Rutherglen 1)’” It’s problematic to categorize what is considered sexual harrasment. Men and women take and view harrasment differently. What men may find acceptable, women may find it offensive, and classify it as sexual harrasment. Academic freedom is the belief that the freedom of inquiry by faculty members is essential to the mission of the academy as well as the principles of academia, and that scholars should have freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts without being targeted for repression, job loss, or...
... College drinking has become popular among all students throughout college campuses. Students are encouraged to “follow the crowd”. Extensive research has been done on social norms and how it influences behavior People conform to what others do in attempts to feel included. The following literature reviews attempt to support this hypothesis. Research done by (Dipali V. R., Clayton N., 2014) suggests that social norms are among the strongest influences on college drinking (Neighbors, Lee, Lewis, Fossos, & Larimer, 2007). Due to perceived norms, students tend to overestimate the amount of alcohol is being consumed by their peers as well as the frequency of consumption. In a recent study done in the University of Houston, researchers examined whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and drinking. The findings were that college students who are higher in temptation drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems when they perceive drinking to be more prevalent among their peers. Dipali V. R., Clayton N., (2014).Perceiving peers to be drinking more may facilitate
yielding to temptation by offering justification (i.e., everyone else is drinking) or by making one's own drinking seem to be more “normal”. Dipali V. R., Clayton N., (2014). In a social norms study done by Alan other research done by Alan D. Berkowitz states that our behavior is influenced by incorrect perceptions of how...
...60, 3, 440-465.
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* Entman, R. (2004). Projections of power: Framing news, public opinion, and US foreign policy (pp.1-28). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
* Garrett, K. (2009). Politically motivated reinforcement seeking: Reframing the selective exposure debate. Journal of Communication, 59, 4, 676-699.
* Gilboa, E. (2005). The CNN effect: The search for a communication theory of international relations. Political Communication, 22, 27-44.
* Hallin, D., & Mancini, P. (2004). Dimensions and models in comparing media systems. Paper presented to the 2004 annual convention of the International Communication Association, New Orleans, May 27-31.
* Hanitzsch, T. and Berganza, R. (2012). Explaining Journalists’ Trust in Public Institutions Across 20 Countries: Media Freedom, Corruption, and Ownership Matter Most. Journal of Communication, 62.
* Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (2004). Further reply to the Langs. Political Communication, 21, 113-116.
* Mody, B. (2012). The marketization of foreign news. Global Media and Communication, 8, 99-115.
* Reich, Z. (2008). The roles of communication technology in obtaining news: Staying close to distant sources. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 85(3), 627-648.
* Robinson, P., & Goddard, P., &...
...inspiration, and actions of those within the group are amplified by the type of management. Personal care and motivation stems from transformational leadership.
The Effect of transactional and transformational Leadership Styles on The Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel (Emery & Barker, 2007); examines the assurance and employment gratification of workers who are working by banking and food establishments.
Belle’s article on transformational leadership has been tied to the greatest influential motivating behavior and great public worker actions. The research connects the performance effects of transformational leadership and an assembly of nurses in a municipal hospital in Italy (2013).
[From here on out each article will be referred to as article one, two, and three (respectfully)].
All three articles had similarities in research questions; the main idea what the biggest similarity does transformational leadership impact how employees react. According to article one, one of the questions posed was concerning transformational leadership in the public area. Does the structure of the business matter? In search of the answer to this question, the researchers choose to test the standards as they exist right now; how they relate to transformational leadership. The researchers came up with several questions: the top organization’s structure, the lower the...
4 December 2013
CensorshipCensorship— the suppression of ideas and information that are dispersed in a society—is and always has been an idea of controversy throughout history. Censorship is usually set in place to defend against anything that is considered objectionable, harmful or sensitive. Historically, censorship has been a vessel to show power, like how it has been used relating to religion and dictatorships. It occurs in many different contexts like speech, books, music, the press, radio, or the Internet in order to control what information is displayed publically. Although, not all forms of censorship are set in place by a governing body, like self-censorship. In this, individuals limit what they publish in an effort to do many things, like expand the group that reads their material. Censorship can take many forms, through exploring some forms—Internet censorship, self-censorship, and censorship in schools—and looking at the fight against censorship, we can understand what motivates the idea of censorship throughout history.
In Internet censorship, a governing body controls what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet. It is widely known that the Internet has a broad range of information, some of which is not appropriate for all...
...Literature Review and Discussion 2
Future Research 7
Social Networking Sites (SNS) and their Impact on Grades
Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of the day-to-day lives of students. In today’s digital age, SNS has become the most-common platform to build and sustain social connections with people from all spheres of our lives. However, SNS, like everything else, can have positive as well as negative effects. Socializing online has become synonymous to “time-pass” activity as more and more students are engaging themselves in Online social media rather than in-person and outdoor activities. Hence, the intention of this research is to understand the standing of SNS usage on academic performance of college/university students .
Literature Review and Discussion
There have been a number of studies analyzing the impacts of Social Networking on students’ academic performance and grades. Furthermore, among all the SNS, Facebook has been targeted the most since it is the most popular site of all the SNS and has maximum impact on the majority of the population exposed to SNS.
For the purpose of this research, various academic journals researching different angles of the question in hand were analyzed. This was done to ensure the inclusion and consideration of as many perspectives of the topic as possible and to keep the research multi-faceted. The...
...Censorship is the act or practice of suppressing the speech or public communication which is considered objectionable, harmful and sensitive, by a government, media outlet or other controlling bodies. This public content is censored for many reasons that the active bodies believe are immoral. Some reasons include: controlling obscenities, pornography, hate speeches, protecting young children, to promote or restrict political or religious views or even to protect the national security of a country.
Types of Censorship:
Almost everything at some point could be placed underneath a category of censorship. Depending on where people are located and who or what is going on in your nation or even community, your public media on the television, Internet, radio, music, movies and books could be censored. There are dozens of different forms of censorship implemented everyday, including all the following:
Moral Censorship- the removal of materials that is considered obscene or morally unacceptable. For example, pornography is usually censored from the public and even prosecuted if it involves young minors.
Political Censorship- This is a form of censorship by the government that occurs when information is withhold from their citizens, mostly used to prevent hateful expressions.
Book Censorship- The censorship of novels is either implicated nationally or...