26 April 2010
The Debate on Torture: Should It Be Permissible
The act of legalizing torture has been a debate amongst people for a long time. Most people feel discomfort imagining someone being tortured, whether under any circumstance, however, there are those who feel that torture can be beneficial to the government, in the most extreme cases, seeking information. For example, after the events of 9/11, where al Qaeda terrorists hijacked commercial airplanes and used as weapons of the Pentagon and World Trade Centers, the debate on whether or not “to torture captured terrorists to prevent civilian or military casualties has taken a great urgency.” Using torture, in this kind of extreme case, is what is being debated. However, does using in this kind of situation still make it justified and moral?
Torture can be defined in two ways: the narrow and the broad. In a broad sense, torture may be regarded as “a range of practices, physical or mental forms of interrogation, from minor humiliation all the way up to lethal coercion” (Lasser 1). Narrowly, however, tortured can be defined as, “inflicting unbearable and potentially lethal physical or psychological pain” (Lasser 1). With the debate on torture the narrow definition is the one most people refer to when discussing the morality and permissibility of the act.
Clinton Van Zandt, is a security consultant. In his essay, It Should Be Permissible to Torture Suspected Terrorists to Gather Information, Van Zandt is clearly for the permissibility, as noted also from his essay title. Van Zandt believes that the permissibility of torture should only be used under the scenario of the “ticking time bomb.” His essay quotes that a ticking time bomb scenario is, “a situation when a suspect is thought to have time-sensitive information affecting the lives of thousands—or even millions—of people” (758). Only when torture is in dire need, is when Van Zandt suggests the act of torturing. As a way to go about executing whether or not a situation calls for torture, Van Zandt believes that there should be a special court that is able to decide whether or not a “duress-interview warrant” (758) should be given if a situation calls for it. The courts would be the deciding factors on this form of punishment. He states, “there may come a time when our nation must quickly try to obtain information critical to the lives of millions of people from a person who refuses to talk” (758). He also goes on to suggest that, “there would be no appeal process and no public or media scrutiny. The authority of the court would be absolute” (758).
In response to Van Zandt’s essay, Vincent Iacopino, director of research for Physicians for Human Rights, shares his opposing argument on the matter. Iacopino believes that torture can never be justifiable, narrowly or broadly defined. In his essay, It Should Not Be Permissible to Torture Suspected Terrorists to Gather Information, Iacopino states, “Torture cannot be justified by any government, for any reason, despite recent reports of the U.S. officials and others attempting to justify such practices” (759). According to the U.N. the U.S. is required to prohibit torture and prosecute perpetrators who go against this law. Iacopino believes that the people that are advocating for the use of torture are arrogant and ignorant. He gives several points of the said “arrogance and ignorance.” He claims that using torture does not make a state safer or more secure and that the use of torture would spread even if it were only intended for the “ticking time bomb” (Zandt 758) scenarios. In his words Iacopino states, “Torture does not make any one person or society safer or more secure…Also, U.S. sanctioning of any form of torture will escalate its already widespread use” (760). Iacopino also describes Van Zandt’s “ticking time bomb” scenario as, “naive, abstract fantasies that serve no to assuage the moral conscience of...
...Running head: Bus-290 Ethics and the Conduct of Business
Sexual harassment in advertising
Robert L. Martin
Ethics and the Conduct of Business
November 16, 2009
Sexual harassment in advertising
Could a company’s advertising ever contribute to an environment in which harassing behavior is more likely to occur? That is, should a company consider the impact of an advertising theme on the behavior of their own employees? In your opinion, did the Swedish bikini team advertising campaign contribute to the harassing behavior of the women’s male coworkers?
No, harassment is an individual act of a person. Companies have harassment policies that discourage this type of behavior. The company employee’s advertising agencies to create the advertisement for the product. The advertising agencies and the company have no idea of the impact of an advertisement on an individual. The individual alone is responsible for his or her harassing behavior whether Sexual or not. As far as Stroh Brewing Company and the Swedish bikini team advertisement is concerned, the employee’s are responsible for the harassment to the women employees. Businesses for decades have used sex in some way or another to advertise the product of a company.
The advertising campaign of Stroh Brewing Company with the Swedish bikini team is no different, than an advertising campaign...
...Causes and Effects of Sexual Harassment
“Sexual harassment is generally accepted to be unwanted conduct of sexual nature that affects the dignity of women and men at work. This sexual conducts could be verbal, non-verbal or physical and is unwelcome by the recipient” (Cecilia, Zanariah and Maria, 2003, P.98).However, this just not only happened between man and women, but child and the teens also can face this problem. Sexualharassment occurred based on few causes and it gives several effects towards the victim, and the causes generally fall into two reasons that are from the victim’s fault and deviant behavior then it affected the victims towards the emotional and psychological health also on productivity of work for a company.
One of the causes contributed to sexual harassment is from the victim’s fault them self. According to Cecilia, Zanariah and Maria (2003) the most common ones of blaming the victims is because of the sexy clothes scenario that they wear. The way women dressed up could provoke sexual harassment in a company even though if she conformed to company’s dress code while working. Men usually will scrutinize sexily-dressed women, not to compliment but to joke and criticize. The joke and critics sometimes may not only through action but through non-verbal action like looking up and down at the women body with flirt way (Male...
...Causes of World War One
Mr. Noble 4th
World War One had many key players, countries and empires being Great Britain, France, German, Austria-Hungary and Russia. Some of the key battles of WW1 were the battle of Marne 1914-1918, battle of Ypres 1914,1915 and 1917,the battle of Somme 1916, battle of Cambria and the famous battle of Verdun 1916. The two sides of the war were the triple Alliance consisting of the central European empires being Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (which does not enter war). And the other half of the war the Triple Entente made up of Great Britain, France and Russia.WW1 was started by the race to power, when one country upgraded their military other countries went and upgraded their militaries so they can stay on the top. The idea of Nationalism mixed with Militarism, triple Alliance and Triple Entente would all come together to cause truly a world war.
How did Militarism affect World War One? Well even though the Schlieffen Plan would channel the anger of Great Britain and slide that into war it was accepted by German Civilian Government (GCG) as the war plan. In 1914 the Russian Generals were also able to force Czar Nicolaas to accept and use full mobilization. They threatened him with the danger of defeat if he acted contrarily. In the start of the Great War (1914) Germany was a very young empire and extremely eager to conquer and take over nations to grow more powerful....
...Introduction: Before WW1, countries in Europe were going through industrial revolutions, many parts of Asia, South America and Africa had been colonised and world wealth was centred in Europe because of mass trading throughout the world. Many events, incidents and tension points led to the eruption of our very first world war. But the main trigger was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of the Empire of Austria-Hungary) on the 28 June 1914.
One of the many causes of WW1 was the two alliance systems formed at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th. On one side was Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Triple Alliance known as the Central Powers) and France, Britain and Russia (Triple Entente known as the Entente Powers) on the other side.
For Germany, its newly united states were becoming more and more powerful by the day, enriching themselves in wealth from industries that were overtaking those of Britain. Kaiser Wilhelm II wanted a strong navy that would again rival Britain's, whose was the largest in the world at the time. The kaiser was keen to make Germany the leading country of Europe, expanding his empire and colonising parts of Africa.
Allied with Germany, Austria-Hungary's empire was unstable. Many peoples and cultures (Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Italians, Croats and Poles) were all being ruled by the Emperor Franz Josef who was having troubles ruling this vast...
Topic: Sexual Harassment at Workplace
Women have been treated with utmost respect in various Indian epics and mythologies. Women are regarded as symbol of love, even worshiped as goddess in India. But on the other hand. they are victim of torture and harassment. Though women participation in economic development of our country is much more than what the stat may reveal, their journey into the business world was not that easy. In India, typically, women have been portrayed as those undertaking business on predictable lines- papad, pickle manufacturing, women have made great progress by breaking the cultural barriers and taking up wide range of jobs, which were earlier restricted only for men. Though now they are on an equal footing with men at workplaces, sexual harassment at work places has been a major challenge which needs to be combated. Traditionally geared for the men the "workplace" is yet to adapt to the needs of women.
This paper mainly focused only on sexual harassment at workplace and not as a whole. This paper is a humble attempt to discuss about the knotty and major issues related to the topic. This paper will deal with the sexual harassment as a global problem and explains the two commonly types of sexual harassment and behavior of the harassers. The only recognized piece of law dealing with the sexual harassment at work place is the ruling of the...
...Harassment (/həˈræsmənt/ or /ˈhærəsmənt/) covers a wide range of behaviours of an offensive nature. It is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset, and it is characteristically repetitive. In the legal sense, it is intentional behaviour which is found threatening or disturbing. Sexual harassment refers to persistent and unwanted sexual advances, typically in the workplace, where the consequences of refusing are potentially very disadvantageous to the victim
It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person’s sex. Harassment can include “sexual harassment” or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.
Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person’s sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general.
Both victim and the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the same sex.
Although the law doesn’t prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim...
...that relations within the workplace are primarily gendered and
that organizations cannot be studied as gender-neutral sites. Acker further reminds us that symbols of gender, processes of gender identity, and
material inequalities between men and women play a major role in defining
workplace relations and even the structure of the labor market.
Women interviewed as part of this study have highlighted a number of
issues that are primarily gender-specific. These primarily relate to working
conditions that women seek in through a government job. Central to interviewed women are issues of respect and decent treatment by employers,
who are predominately male. Also of paramount importance to interviewed
women was their fear of sexual harassment and its associations with job
place suitability, and notions of chastity, morality, and an honorable reputation. The problematic effects of long working hours for women, not only
legally, but in the framework of the double burden undertaken by women
in the region, are essential to women’s workplace suitability. We also examine the conditions of women working for low pay, gender wage gaps in the
workplace, and social security issues in the context of benefits, and the
presence of contractual agreements between employees and employers.
While we discuss each of these issues separately for analytical purposes,
they are all inter-related in the framework of analyzing job quality issues for
women in the private...
Sexual harassment in the workplace is a very big problem today. It is a
problem that hasn't really drawn much attention until now. More and more sexual
harassment cases have been brought up today than ever before. We here about a
harassment case in the papers almost everyday. Sexual harassment has even drawn
attention to movies. One movie that has drawn its most recent attention to
sexualharassment is Disclosure.
In the movie Disclosure, sexual harassment draws its attention to the
workplace. The workplace is a very common area for harassment to occur. In
some cases we might not know that it is even taking place. What is sexual
harassment? The dictionary definition of sexual is relating to, having or
involving sex. The dictionary definition of harassment is to annoy persistently.
The definition of sexual harassment then is to persistently annoy someone
through the use of sexual tactics.
The movie Disclosure portrays an act of sexual harassment in the
workplace. It involves a male and a female. In this case the male is the
person who is sexually harassed. In the movie the male character Michael
Douglas is sexually harassed by the Female character Demi Moore. The two
characters used to share a very sexual relationship at one time. The two split
up and did not here from...