The period of Kalifa l-Rashidun is the best period in Islamic history as stated by Prophet Muhammad: the best of people is the people within my century, then the next century then the next century; and it is a requirement to follow the way of Kalifa l-Rashidun as they were upon the prophetic tradition. The period of the Kaliphate upon this Prophetic Tradition lasted thirty years after the death of Prophet Muhammad. The main achievements of the kalifa I-Rashidun which also changed societies include the spreading of Islam out Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of Islamic rule through the Kaliphate enhanced the fair treatment the people regardless of their religion and cultural background. This directly led to large numbers of people at the time into embracing Islam as their religion. The Kaliphate also introduced guidelines on the ownership and treatment of slaves, which resulted in elevated the position of slaves within society. In addition the Islamic shura system was established as a fair and just system to select the leadership of the kalifa. Welfare was also a major society changing achievement of the kalifa I-rashidun (El-Hibri 2010).
One of the significant achievements of the Kalifa l-Rashidun is that they spread Islam out of Arabian Peninsula taking people away from paganism and harsh cultural traditions. The first three Kalifas played a central role in ensuring the Islam and its way of life was instilled into populations that were conquered. The spread of Islam outside of the Arabian Peninsula started from the time of Abu Bakr and continued through Umar and Uthman’s time. During this period, Islam spread across vast areas, Islamic state became much bigger, including Syria, Iraq, Iran, Azerbaijan and a large area of the African continent. Lapidus (2002, p. 31) stated that “the conquest led to the formation of a new regime, to the migration and settlement of large number of Arabians in the cities and towns of the Middle East, and extensive urbanization and economic development”. The capitulation of these vast territories to the Islamic advance was assisted considerably by the corrupt and oppressive rulers in place at that time. According to Khan (2010, p. 1) “there were two superpowers in the world, namely the Holy Roman Empire (its eastern wing was known as the Byzantine Empire) and the Persian Empire”. In addition, in Roman people use to deal with interest, and the government demanded high taxes from the people, particularly the farmers which led them to sell their farms and migrate to the cities. Another issue facing the people of these territories was the ongoing conflicts and devastating wars between each other. In Persia, people were not equal in status and people were divided into layers of society. This unjust and bias system increased the troubles in that society. Moreover these empires were unable to curb theft, provide basic women’s rights, such as inheritance. As a result of Kaliphate spreading Islam, they established governing systems based upon justice, peace and the God-taught benefits of mankind. Islam removed differences between people in terms of status, colour, culture, sex and ethnic. They prohibited interest. The system gave money to the needy, both Muslims and non Muslims from the Kaliphate’s own treasury. Theft decreased due to the very harsh punishment for those found guilty of stealing. Women were honoured by giving them their rights of inheritance (Brockelmann 1944).
Following the spread of Islam out of Arabian Peninsula, Muslims conquered many new countries which were still non-muslim. Some of the conquered lands were populated with Christians and Jews. Under Islamic law Christians are considered ‘people of covenant’ which in turn meant they needed to pay the jizya Tax. The revenue from this tax is used to ensure that they are protected by the state from any harm and they do not have to do any military duty. Whilst they are citizens of the state, the jizya also ensures they...
...Evaluate the role of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs in the development of Islam, accounting for the emergence of the Sunni and Shi'ite schism
Muhammad's mission, like many other prophets, was to call people to the worship and submission of the one true God. After his death this mission was left to those whom followed his teachings. Those who truly followed in the Prophet's foot steps were proclaimed The Rightly Guided Caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Uthman and Ali, and were the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, all of which were amongst the earliest and closest companions of the Prophet Muhammad. Each of these Caliphs contributed greatly to the development of Islam as well as the contradictory emergence of the Sunni and Shi'ite schism.
Abu Bakr was the first of the four Caliphs and ruled from 632-634 A.C. Abu Bakr was unfortunate to have the burden of leadership placed on him during the most sensitive of Muslim times. Since the death of Muhammad was quickly spreading, many Muslims and tribes decided to rebel, refusing to pay Zakat. Also, many claimed that the prophethood of Muhammad had been placed on them, this only made the tribes revolt stronger. He had to deal with the threat of two powerful empires, the Roman Empire and the Persian, of which threatened Islamic state in Medina. Abu Bakr himself led a charge against the revolting tribes who attacked Medina and forced them to retreat. Although...
The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs of Islam
First Caliph: Abu Bakr (632-634 C.E.)
Father-in-law of Mohammed and was the first convert to Islam.
After the demise of Muhammad, companions of the Prophet assembled and discussed who would be the next leader, it became apparent that no one was better suited for this responsibility than Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr became the Caliph on 632 C.E. His main objective was to maintain the heritage of the Prophet.
Contributions to Islam
- Conversion to Islam. His conversion became a milestone in the history of Islam. His conversion proved to be the greatest assurance of the sincerity of Muhammad.
- Missionary of Islam. He was the greatest missionary of Islam after the Holy Prophet. Through his efforts, many people from the Quraish tribe were converted to Islam.
- Liberation of slaves. Abu Bakr purchased the afflicted slaves who were converted to Islam and set them free.
- Psychological crisis. When the Prophet died, the Muslim community was in a psychological crisis. Abu Bakr consoled the people and said that Muhammad is indeed dead but God is alive and will never die. And then he concluded with a verse from the Qur'an: "And Muhammad is but a Messenger. Many Messengers have gone before him; if then he dies or is killed, will you turn back upon your heels?" [3:144]
- Apostasy campaigns. After the death of the Muhammad, most of the tribes transferred their allegiance to...
In an Economic Times article on the 15th of September there is a report that says that more and more expatriates and foreign corporate managers are queuing to take up Indian assignments. This is because the idea of an Indian experience from a growth and role perspective offers them a huge value addition. As an HR head says "India is a market of constant learning and provides expatriates with a foundation for a global tomorrow".
This article if taken in context with the case in question gives us the clear correlation between foreign assignments and future corporate success. A foreign assignment with all its hardship and adjustment fears is a perfect platform for future CEO's to showcase their abilities. Success in a foreign assignment is usually the trial-by-fire for corporate managers. Their success here could thus make or break their careers.
Frank Waterhouse, CEO of Argos Diesel, Europe, is a worried man. Bert Donaldson, who arrived in Zurich a year ago to create a seamless European team--to facilitate communication among the parts suppliers that Argos has acquired over the past two years--just isn't working out. Although he has excellent credentials, both as a successful team builder at Argos International in Detroit and as a teacher in Cairo, his style seems abrasive here and he is behind schedule in implementing the team-building program. Moreover, Waterhouse is worried that Donaldson's failure will reflect badly on himself. But Waterhouse...