J Bus Ethics (2013) 112:257–270
Bringing Work Back in Islamic Ethics
Bayu Tauﬁq Possumah • Abdul Ghafar Ismail
Received: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published online: 22 February 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Abstract Religion and work are seldom discussed. The
two have caused scholars to question the religion’s role
with work. This paper reviews research on the integrate
between religion and work by examining issues of concept,
deﬁnition, measurement, and reviewing research that
examines the relationship of work and religion with respect
to: different times, types of people, organize human interactions and sources of knowledge. We then discuss the methodological requirement for reintegrating work studies
into social institutional theory and indicate what the conceptual payoffs of such integration might be. These payoffs include breaking new conceptual ground, resolving theoretical puzzles and envisioning the nature of new social institutions
Work Á Islam Á Ethic
The role of religion in our working life has been known
since the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). However, the contemporary views on the concept of work as discussed in several studies such as Applebaum (1992) and Gamst
(1995) have produced several interesting ﬁndings. The
former study uses the chronological and historical period to organize and discuss the concept of work during the
ancient, medieval and modern times, but the missing point
in their work is the concept of work during the golden ages
B. T. Possumah (&) Á A. G. Ismail Á S. Shahimi
Research Center for Islamic Economics and Finance, School
of Economics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi,
e-mail: btauﬁ[email protected]; [email protected]
of Islam. While, other studies such as Read (2004) ﬁnds
that the tenets of major religious traditions restrict
women’s achievements in the public sphere by prioritizing
their obligations to home and family.1 It seems that if we
work at home and take care our family are not considered
as part of our work.
This article contributes to this line of inquiry in three
perspectives: ﬁrst, the concept of work during the golden
era of Islam has not been touched. It creates the missing
view from the chronological and historical period. Second,
Third, the research integrates between al-Quran and
work is an important contribution to that frontier. Especially in deriving the wages, labor relation and proﬁt sharing. It also guides our lives. With the above reason,
study the role of religion to work is needed because there
are three primary ways in which religious sanctiﬁcation can be important for the creation of work and any labor code in
the Muslim world: sustainability, adaptability, and stability. These outcomes will be difﬁcult to attain through a secular framework because of the unique historical context
out of which Muslim nations have emerged.
Religion and Work: A Review of Related Studies
The discussion of this section will be divided into two
sections. The ﬁrst section will discuss the ﬁndings from the past studies. While the second and third sections will
highlight the discussion of work from revealed knowledge.
See Nippert-Eng (1996), she discusses further the classiﬁcation of home and work.
Review from Past Studies
The studies that integrate between religion and work are
not new subjects..2 However, there are very few studies
which try to integrate these two topics. Among the earlier
study was Weber (1905) and Siedenburg (1922). They
introduce the Protestant Work Ethic (PWE) and Marxistrelated beliefs in discussing the work values and beliefs that produce the spirit of capitalism. This study leads other researchers, such as Buchholz (1977, 1978), Furnham
(1982, 1984), Furnham and Bland (1983) propose the
measure of work beliefs and values the...
...product offerings to take advantage of those opportunities available in market. In this way, the marketing function is one source of the organization’s strategic thinking. This course deals with the management of marketing functions in profit and non profit organizations. Besides introducing you to marketing strategy and the elements of marketing analysis (customer, competitor and company), we will also consider the key elements of the marketing mix: product management, pricing, distribution, and communication. The focus of the course will be on the issues of segmentation, targeting and positioning.
MBA (Major in Marketing)
Master of science in Management (Major in Marketing)
PhD in progress Course work competed (Major in Marketing Marketing)
E-mail: [email protected]
Recommended Book (s)
Marketing Management 12th Edition By Philip Kotler
Reference Book (s)
Marketing Management by Frank Bradley
Marketing Management by Philip Kotler, International Edition
1. The students must reach the class-rooms in time. Late comers may join the class but may not be entitled to be marked “present”.
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The main discussion in the article is on the meaning of the term ethics. The author starts the article by raising questions about ethics and morality. While most people understand ethics and morality is sharing the same meaning, the author suggest otherwise. The author suggests that the term ethics and morality do not share the same definition. There is indeed a great different betweenethics and morality.
Different people have different view and perspective on the meaning of ethics. If the question of the meaning of ethics is to be asked to 10 different people, chances are, we might be hearing 10 different answers explaining the meaning of ethics. Hence, scholars argue that to determine one single meaning of ethics is difficult.
The article explained that ethics is not something that can be associated with feeling. Some other people contend that we should identify ethics with religion. However, according to the article, ethics cannot also be identified with religion. Above all, the author also explained that the act of one doing “whatever society accept’ cannot be realize as one being ethical. The author argues, the lack of social consensus on many issues make it impossible to equate ethics with whatever society accepts.
...UBLearns should be directed to the UB CIT Helpdesk. Policies: No incompletes will be given unless accompanied by a valid medical excuse (or equivalent) explaining why the work could not be completed. No extra credit will be given exceptin Top Hat Monocle. are no makeups given for missed Top Hat Monocle exercises. No make-up examswill be given unless the student produces a valid, written, excuse with a doctor's (MD) signature (or equivalent) explaining why the student missed the exam. mbe exams ina blue exam booklet. Each makeup will consist of seven ten -answer worth five to fifteen points each. Regrades of exams may be requested in person only up to week after the exam results are returned. Exam Results (scores, exam keys, responses to questions, statistical reports) will be posted to UBLearns approximately one week after the exam is given. Planned excused absences must be approved by the course instructor at least 2 weeks in advance. Emails to the instructor are not encouraged, except for essential issues relating to course administration or other matters that do not fall under the purview of the teaching assistants (TAs). In such a large course as this, the demand of answering numerous emails from students can easily overwhelm the instructor. Also, please do not leave phone messages for the instructor to "call me back."
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...Title: A New WorkEthic
Dr. Jason Carthen
Business Ethic 309
January 29, 2011
A New WorkEthic
Business ethic is the study of what constitute right and wrong. Or good and bad, human conduct in a business context. Moral standards are different because they concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare that can profoundly injure or benefit people. The conventional norms against lying, stealing, stealing, and killing deal with action that can hurt people. Morality serves to restrain our purely self-interested desires so we can all live together. People who are exclusively concerned with their own interests tend to have less happy and less satisfying lives than those whose desires extend beyond themselves (Shaw 2010).
1. Describe how typical the attitudes that Sheehy reports appear to be in work environments you have experienced.
Over the course of years, throughout years of working low paying jobs, workethics of co-workers has been crucial for business. In a mixed environment and age difference, working sometimes side by side with teenagers will bring conflict amongst the older generation. As an employee, dishonesty in the work place gives one a bad reputation and makes all of your judgments questioned and if you verbally lie, you will not be trusted and if you steal, you will not be forgiven. Whether...
Why WorkEthics is Important in the College Settings and transfers to a Job…….
Health Safety and Nutrition (21252)
September 7, 2012
WorkEthicsWorkEthics is a cultural norm that advocates being personally accountable and responsible for the work that one does and is based on a belief that work has intrinsic value. This term is often applied to characteristics of people both work and at play. Workethics involve characteristics as honesty and accountability.
It breaks down to what one does or would do in a situation. Philosophically, if one does not have proper workethics, a person’s conscience may be bothered. Most people have good workethics; we should not only want to but desire to do the proper thing in a given situation.
Christian word view holds fundamentally a two central workethics-humility and the treatment of others. Humility is being humble, no task to demanding, it involves servitude, which means placing other people needs before your own. Treating others with the decency and respect that equal to the golden rule.
IS YOUR COLLEGE PREPARING YOU FOR THE WORK FORCE?
...When determining the status of morality there is three different options. Morality may be the different between objectives, relativistic, or it may be a complex set of rules. Moral nihilists are like relativists by denying ethical objectivism however, relativists believe in moral goodness, duty and virtue and nihilists don’t. Error theorists and expressivism are both forms of moral nihilism. Error theorists believe “our moral judgments are always mistaken”. Expressivists don’t agree and also deny that our moral claims can ever offer an accurate take on reality. (307)
Error theory and expressivism are two forms of moral nihilism. Error theorists believe “our moral judgments are always mistaken”. (307) While expressivists deny those beliefs and deny, “that our moral claims can never offer an accurate take on reality”. (307) The error theory is made of three doubts/claims.
The first is “there are no moral features in this world”. Error theorists believe that nothing is morally good or bad, or right and wrong. Exemplified in the book many scientific qualities in the world (liquids, being three feet long, carbon based chemicals) but none of them contain moral features. The next doubt of error theorists is no moral judgments are true. There are no moral facts so certain statements made cannot be true. The third corresponds to the second doubt, “our sincere moral judgments try, but always fail, to describe the moral features of things”. Since there are no moral truths for...
Boxing is a violent sport full of hate where the only objective is to knock your opponent unconscious. This is a very quick and biased view of boxing because if you study boxing closer it helps teach the person about their moral character. Boxing helps teach people to “get off the canvas and roll with the punches” (Marino, 2010, para 8) and to face their fears, two important lessons to get through life. Throughout the article written by Marino, he educates about Aristotelian ethics and uses boxing as a real-life example. I believe that Marino’s invocation of Aristotelian ethics is well articulated, and I agree with his application through boxing relating it to your life. Aristotelian ethics and boxing can relate to the rights and responsibility lens; boxing can help develop our moral lives and can clearly define and educate people about Aristotle’s definition of courage.
The sport of boxing and comparing it to real-life morals and virtues is extremely well done by Gordon Marino using Aristotelian ethics. The moral virtues that Aristotle preached such as “qualities, temperance, justice, pride, and truthfulness” (Marino, 2010, para. 11) all can be directly applied to Kantian ethics and the rights/responsibility lens (DesJardins, 2012). Boxing is a man versus man, woman versus woman sport which “can compel a person to take a quick self-inventory...