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The role of knowledge management in post-disaster housing reconstruction Rajendram Thanurjan and L.D. Indunil P. Seneviratne
Department of Building Economics, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka Abstract
Purpose – A disaster is a serious disruption for the operation of a society, causing extensive life and property losses. Since construction activities are highly knowledge-intensive, knowledge management (KM) practices will encourage continuous improvement, distribute best practices, quick response to beneﬁciaries, share valuable tacit knowledge, reduce rework, improve competitiveness and innovations, and reduce complexities in post-disaster housing reconstruction. Therefore, this research aims to study and explore the degree to which KM is involved in post-disaster housing reconstruction and the effect that KM has on post-disaster housing reconstruction in the Sri Lankan context. Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted by systematically reviewing the literature in Knowledge and KM to highlight the basic principles. Data collection mode for the study was close-end questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from donor and consultancy organisations which are involved in post-disaster housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka. Findings – The results show that most of the donors and consultancy organisations carry out permanent disaster housing reconstruction for tsunami devastation. Further, the study reveals that organisations use competences and repositories as the main sources of knowledge internal and external to the organisation. Project reviews, task teams, face-to-face interactions, and electronic mail systems were greatly used to support KM. Even though the performance of the work was improved through KM, lack of compiling and synthesizing the accumulated data, information and knowledge, storing and organizing would be the main challenge faced by these organisations. Practical implications – It is evident that a more concerted and formal approach will improve disaster housing reconstruction. Since knowledge gatekeepers have extensive tacit and explicit knowledge, the organisations have to use it as a signiﬁcant source. Even though the majority of the donors and consulting organisations used competencies and repositories as main sources of K, the identiﬁcation and exploitation of a variety of appropriate sources are of central importance. Further, organisations have to focus more on a variety of IT tools in order to store Knowledge for future use. Since there were challenges for KM, the organisations have to identify proper solutions in order to move towards and achieve the beneﬁts of KM. Finally, the organisations have to provide an appropriate rewards system to encourage their employees in participating in KM. Originality value – The disaster housing reconstruction will not end on a certain point and it will be a continuous process. Formal KM systems will help to improve the present state and further provide proper Knowledge in the future. There should be a standardised practice in order to improve the performance and give good value for beneﬁciaries. The study makes it quite evident that proper KM will improve the status of post-disaster housing reconstruction. Keywords Knowledge management, Natural disasters, Sri Lanka, Construction works, Housing Paper type Research paper
Disaster Prevention and Management Vol. 18 No. 1, 2009 pp. 66-77 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0965-3562 DOI 10.1108/09653560910938556
1. Background 1.1 An overview of disaster A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of affected society
to copy using only its own resources (Disaster Management Centre of Sri Lanka (DMC), 2007). Disasters can be...
Samuel Jacob Bradford was born November 8th of 1978 to his loving parents, Martha and Kent Bradford. Sam is the only child, which allowed his parents to devote all their time to him and support what it is he wanted to do. Whether it was playing sports or the cello, his parents did what they could to develop it. They encouraged him in everything. "As long as it was a good, wholesome thing,” Kent said. "If he wanted to do it, do it.” Even though Sam was central to their lives, he wasn’t coddled. There was discipline if he misbehaved. There was tough love. Martha and Kent’s devotion to Sam remains just as strong to this day.
Much of what the Bradford’s did involved sports. Martha is a physical education teacher for an elementary school and Kent was a former sooner offensive lineman. Some might say it was nature and some say it was nurture, either way Sam tended towards sports.
Bradford attended Putnam City North High School in Oklahoma City. There he starred in golf, basketball, and football. His senior year he was the star quarterback for the Panthers. Bradford threw for 2,029 yards and scored 17 touchdowns in 12 games. He received an athletic scholarship to the University of Oklahoma, where he played for Coach Bob Stoops.
In 2006, Oklahoma's starting quarterback Rhett Bomar, then a sophomore, was dismissed from the team for violating NCAA rules. Paul Thompson, a senior...
...Captain Jahn Smith and Governor William Bradford were two influental leaders in the New World during the early 1600s. They both established a colony and they attempted to attract settlers with writings. Their writings were intended for different audiences and they both had different purposes. John Smith’s writings were intended to bring people to the new world. He wrote a pamphlet to the people in England and told about all the good things about New England. In his pamphlet he tried to persuade people to join him in the new land and how he promised the New England was better than England. John Smith's audience was intended for people from England, and possible settlers.Though,William Bradford's writings were intended for different audiences and he had a different purpose than John Smith. William Bradford's audience was intended for the future generation. He wrote a diary about his actual experiences in Colonial America,he discussed in his diary about the many hardships he faced. Both wrote of their experiences in America,were Europeans,and desired to settle the land. John Smith and William Bradford were two important people who led to the settlement in America. They were fine leaders who made survival possible on this new land. They created relationships with the natives and won and lost some with their own men. They led their men across the ocean to settle on lands that were never previously settled by Europeans. They had all of...
Foundation Biology lab
BRADFORD PROTEIN DISCUSSION ESSAY
The appearance of blue color showed the present of protein in the BSA dilutions. The more diluted the solution was, the less blue it was. The R2 value of the standard curve of BSA dilution was obtained to be 0.9972, which is close to 1. The closer to 1 the R2 value was, the more accurate the linear portion was.
The error percentage of each unknown was large: 25.9% for skim milk, 95% for soy sauce, and 64.7% for egg white. The vast difference between the theoretical protein concentration and experimental protein concentration of the unknowns showed that Bradford Protein Assay must have limitations. The Coomassie dye only interacts with certain amino acids such as: arginine, histidine, lysine, tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. However, each amino acid has different structure from each other; therefore the Coomassie dye will interact differently with each amino acid. The Coomassie dye molecules are bound to proteins by elctronstatic attraction enhanced by hydrophobic bonding (Tal et al. 1984). Besides the interaction between Coomassie dye and amino acids, some compounds can interfere the result of the Bradford assay such as: salt, fat, and detergent. Another factor that could influence on the Bradford assay is the protein sample must fall within the linear range of standard curve.
Another possible explanation for the difference between...
The front page of the Bradford journal
William Bradford's most well-known work by far is Of Plymouth Plantation. It was a detailed history in manuscript form about the founding of the Plymouth colony and the lives of the colonists from 1621 to 1646. It is a common misconception that the manuscript was actually Bradford's journal. Rather, it was a retrospective account of his recollections and observations, written in the form of two books. The first book was written in 1630; the second was never finished, but "between 1646 and 1650, he brought the account of the colony's struggles and achievements through the year 1646." As Walter P. Wenska states, "Bradford writes most of his history out of his nostalgia, long after the decline of Pilgrim fervor and commitment had become apparent. Both the early annals which express his confidence in the Pilgrim mission and the later annals, some of which reveal his dismay and disappointment, were written at about the same time." In Of Plymouth Plantation, Bradford drew deep parallels between everyday life and the events of the Bible. As Philip Gould writes, "Bradford hoped to demonstrate the workings of divine providence for the edification of future generations." Despite the fact that the manuscript was not published until 1656, the year before his death, it was well received by his near contemporaries.
In 1888 Charles F. Richardson referred...
...Bradford Protein Assay Practical Report
1. Present your data (including raw data and calculated concentrations) for the protein standards in the form of a clear table. Give one example of how you calculated protein concentration. Do not forget a descriptive title and units (4marks)
Title either too long or not descriptive or absent
Your results are in duplicate & shouldn’t be referred to as ‘set1 & set2’ or ‘original’ and ‘duplicate’
Many of you think units of absorbance are nm but A has arbitrary
(ie no) units. nm indicates the max of the chromophore
Failure to give correct units in legends eg (ml) or (g/ml)
2. Plot a graph of absorbance against protein concentration by hand. The graph
should have an appropriate title and clearly labelled axes. Staple graph to the completed proforma and the Life Sciences submission sheet (4 marks)
Mainly ok but both duplicate Abs- blank should be plotted and one line of best fit drawn through points.
Do not extrapolate beyond the highest standard, you have no evidence that Beer-Lambert’s Law applies at high A.
Make sure you choose appropriate scale and use full scale deflection on A4 graph paper.
These types of graph are standard curves and that term should be in the title, remember we are not directly measuring the absorbance of protein, but a chromophore derived from the protein.
3. Present your data for unknown samples (including raw data and calculated concentrations of X &Y) in the form of a...
1. In complete sentence format, list three specific details you learned about William Bradford from this reading.
William Bradford, born in 1589/90, had the misfortune of being orphaned by the age of 7. Regrettably, he later suffered this tragedy again with his wife, Dorothy, who drowned from falling overboard while looking for a place to settle. In 1623, he remarried to Alice Southworth with whom he had three more children, all surviving to adulthood and marriage.
2. In two sentences, explain why you think Bradford is significant in American history.
William Bradford is of great significance to American history because he plays a big role in how America started off including being the Governor of Plymouth for many years. Another reason for why Bradford is significant to American history is that he played a major role in the “First” Thanksgiving as he had had a similar feast to celebrate his second marriage.
3. What personal tragedy occurred while the Mayflower was anchored off Province town Harbor? (Remember, use complete sentences please.)
While the Mayflower was anchored off Province town Harbor, William Bradford suffered the tragedy of death with his wife, Dorothy, who drowned from falling overboard while looking for a place to settle.
Since the time the pirates arrived, our lives were altered. These pirates belittle...
...which has been formerly described by Bradford has become the most favoured method for determining protein throughout many laboratories. It is used broadly within the food industry, by research laboratories, and in medical diagnostics.
The Bradford assay is dependent on the binding of the dye Coomassie Blue G250 to protein (mainly arginine), in which the dye is equal to the protein concentration. When the protein is absent, the solution is a red-brown colour and when the protein binds, the pKa of the dye moves causing the dye to become blue. The anionic blue form of the dye, which binds to the protein, has a maximum absorbance of 590 nm whereas the assay reagent solution of red and green forms has a maximum absorbance of 470 nm and 650 nm. Due to the assay being sensitive with a range of 20 to 200 μg protein, it can be determined by the amount of dye present in the blue ionic form. This can usually be accomplished by measuring the solution at an absorbance of 595 nm.
Proteins can usually be obtained from renal ultrafiltration. Proteinuria, a high level of protein in urine, is an indicator of a varied amount of diseases that can affect the kidney. Hypertension is a well-known common cause of kidney disease and if controlled successfully, it can lead to a decrease in proteinuria and an overall improvement in kidney function. In this experiment, the protein concentration within the urine samples provided will be determined using the...
...Pirate or Puritan: Which one are you? Part I: Answer the following questions on Bradford. (These are the same questions from the Observe page.) 1. In complete sentence format, list three specific details you learned about William Bradford from this reading.I learned from this reading that Braford used Plain Style in his writing, he was a English Seperatist learder of settlers at Plymouth colony in Massachusetts, and he served as govenor. 2. In two sentences, explain why you think Bradford is significant in American history.Bradford is significant in American history because of the journal he wrote. He was also important because he was the first civil authority to designate American cultur views on Thanksgiving. 3. What personal tragedy occurred while the Mayflower was anchored off Provincetown Harbor? (Remember, use complete sentences please)When the mayflower was anchored off in Provincetown Harbor Bradford’s wife, Dorthy, fell off the ship and died.Part II: Write your own journal entry!Write your own journal entry using the information below. Choose one of the following perspectives: |
Option Two: Write your own journal entry from the perspective of a member of Bradford's colony. What do you think of these unruly pirates? What shocks you the most about these surly characters? How do the manners of the pirates differ from yours? Visit the Calvinism in New England Puritan Culture web site. This site will assist you in...