There have been so many things discussed throughout these couple of months, everything from fossils, to Neanderthals, to evolution. From the beginning of evolution, our very start, our closest relative a chimpanzee, and modern man. We have gone through this journey and I have witnessed what the past looked like and made me appreciate my present. There are some incredibly specific items that need to be present in order for fossils to be procured, and they are only found in water, caves, or volcanoes. There is also a geological an scale, there needs to be dating, relative and absolute, by finding this fossils you now possess a better view of the times and are able to reconstruct ancient environments, which include climate and habitat reconstruction. Water needs to be present including sand, generally these are found around or in a lake, then there are caves, and volcanoes are an area because of the ash are the conditions and places for fossilization.
Fossils which are any and all traces of a past life and fossil records are fossilized remains of organisms that lived in the past, and the people that look and study these remains of a past world are paleontologist, they are men and women who study extinct organisms based on their fossilized remains.
The ways that fossils come to be are in a certain order, from death to deposition to fossilization then recovery. Then for individual fossils there is death, decomposition/consumption, and weathering. Then there is stratigraphy, which is the study of rock layers and the sequence of events they reflect. The greatest achievement and jump in evolutions was mans bipedality, suddenly we were faster, taller, able to bring and eat food for efficiently, it was a marvel. We were mobile, energy efficient, we could migrate and avoid the incredibly harsh weather, it also allowed for bigger brains, which improved out intelligence. Tools were also a great help to Neanderthal men, it made life easier and able to compete with the...
...The story of
“A Brief Overview”
The Argument in Syllogisms
Premise 1 - God created
Premise 2 - Humanity did
Conclusion 3 - Therefore,
there will be no
evidence of humanevolution.
Premise 1 - All life forms
on earth go through the
process of evolution.
Premise 2 - Humanity is a
life form on earth.
Conclusion 3 - Therefore,
there will be evidence
Age of the Earth – 5 billion
deepest is oldest
Material found is
same age as other
material in same
Scientific Dating of
dating is proven
accurate back to 50,000 years
isotope dating is
proven accurate back to
to argon dating is
proven accurate back to 5
Do the same laws of evolution
apply to human beings?
In a new book, documentary, and promotional Web site, paleontologist Jorn Hurum, who led the
team that analyzed the 47-million-year-old fossil seen above, suggests Ida is a critical missinglink species in primate evolution. The fossil, he says, bridges the evolutionary split between
higher primates such as monkeys, apes, and humans and their more...
...We are apes
What makes us different?
1. we started walking on two feet
2. our brains got bigger
3. we started using tools
4. we lost our hair
Who is our closest living relative? Look at genetic distances between humans, chimpanzees and gorillas!
What is the evidence that humans evolved?
* H. erectusis in Europe ca. 1.8million years ago
* H. neanderthalensisis in Europe ca. 400,000 years ago
1) The earliest H.sapiens fossils (195,000 years ago) are from Ethiopia (H.sapiens fossils don’t turn up outside of Africa until 50,000‐60,000 years ago)
2) Phylogenetic analyses show that the common ancestor to all non‐African modern humans are African modern humans
3)Genetic diversity in Non‐Africans represents a narrow subset of the genetic diversity found in Africa
How and where humans originated?
So far, the data supports Hypothesis 2 BUT! "A new view of the birth of Homo Sapiens" by Svante Paabo and colleagues showed that
* Siberian ancient humans were genetically distinct from European Neandretal (calledDenisovans), but perhaps their sister population
* Sequenced Denisovan genome and compared with humans around the world.
* Modern Melanesians(e.g. PapuaNew Guinea) derive asmuch as 7.4% oftheirDNA from Denisovans. European, Middle‐eastern and Asia shared very little and...
...Phylogenetic Trees ￼
Each phylogenetic tree represents a different interpretation of humanevolution. Firstly in the actual structure of these two phylogenetic trees, it can be seen that figure one provides a very linear progression of humanevolution in steady, constant phases of evolution and extinction. The second chart however presents a more complex inerpretation and arrangement of its data, with not only more species but far greater periods of temporal overlap. The second figure gives a larger span of time for humanevolution by beginning at the 6 million mark, figure 1 however starts at the 5 million mark and therefore reveals a less effective tree of humanevolution. Chart 2 provides three possible direct ancestors to Homo Ergaster, these being Homo Rudolfensis, Homo Habilis as well as one unknown or missing link.
In regards to unknowns, tree one prefers to provide few missing links by only providing two, one of which is not directly related and therefore is not of great importance to modern humans. Figure 1 prefers instead to use physical evidence of evolution, such as fossils as opposed to hypothezing or predicting the incidence of unknown entities. This could reflect upon the importance placed on physical evidence as opposed to inferring at the time. Tree two on the other hand provides a total of five...
...This article is about the divergence of Homo sapiens from other species. For a complete timeline of humanevolution, see Timeline of humanevolution. For other uses, see Humanevolution (disambiguation).
"Evolution of Man" redirects here. For the album by Example, see The Evolution of Man.
Part of a series on
Diagrammatic representation of the
divergence of modern taxonomic
groups from their common ancestor.
Processes and outcomes[show]
History of evolutionary theory[show]
Fields and applications[show]
Portal icon Evolutionary biology portal
Book icon Book
Humanevolution refers to the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of humanevolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics.
According to genetic studies,...
...HumanEvolution is just a theory. Hominids began to come to life about four to five million years ago and only one will adapt to become us. Many species had to adapt to their environment or die off. The result of changes in the environment made us today.
Australopithecus aferensis are one of the first hominids, also known as the Australopith. The Australopith had a reason why they had to stand up on two legs. Eight million years ago, Africa was covered with tropical rain forests. Suddenly, tectonic plates shifted and India crashed into Asia. This collision changed weather patterns. Wind currents changed and moistures moved out of Africa. Africa also changed from mainly rain forests to grasslands and woodlands. Some gorillas and apes could no longer live in the new environment. They had to adapt walk upright or die off. The Australopith had a leathery, wrinkled face and a flat nose. They also had long arms for life in the trees. The Australopith were three and one-half to four and one-half feet tall. They were hairy and had dark eyes. The Alpha male was the leader and mates with all females. The Alpha male protects troops and is the smartest, strongest, and most dominant. The Australopith live in a troop of a few dozen. They groom each other to relieve stress. The Australopith are violent with each other. They eat berries, fruit, and plants. They had no tools. Some advantages of walking upright were that they can see over tall grasses to...
...Immigration in the Twenty-First Century: Accommodation and Change 486
Women in Math and Science 505
Finding Soldiers: The Volunteer Army, Recruitment, and the Draft 528
Wal-Mart and the Public Good 557
Sustainability and the Search for Clean Energy 578
Biotech Agriculture and the Ethics of Food Production 599
Argument Classics 623
vi Brief Contents
Part One Overview of Argument 1
1 Argument: An Introduction 2
What Do We Mean by Argument? 2
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel 2
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate 3
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit 3
LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, M.D., Let the Facts Decide, Not Fear: Ban AB 1108 6
A former secretary of health and human services opposes a ban on a chemical that
makes toys soft and flexible.
The Defining Features of Argument 10
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims 10
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product 12
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion 13
Argument and the Problem of Truth 15
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning
GORDON ADAMS (STUDENT), Petition to Waive the University Mathematics
A student accepted to law school but delayed by a remaining math requirement argues
to be exempted.
2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring 24
...The Future of HumanEvolution
Darwinism and Evolution
Evolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over
time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology
today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin 's
1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin
laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a
common ancestor from which they are descended. As populations of species moved
into new habitats and new parts of the world, they faced different environmental
conditions. Over time, these populations accumulated modifications, or
adaptations, that allowed them and their offspring to survive better in their
new environments. These modifications were the key to the evolution of new
species, and Darwin proposed natural selection or "survival of the fittest" as
the vehicle by which that change occurs. Under Natural Selection, some
individuals in a population have adaptations that allow them to survive and
more than other individuals. These adaptations become more common in the
population because of this higher reproductive success. Over time, the
characteristics of the population as a whole can change, sometimes even
resulting in the formation of a new species. Humans have...
...Evolution of Polar Bears
The observed fossil transitions that inform our knowledge of Polar Bear speciation are very well documented. Bear fossils change through time: generally, when examining the fossil record, successively deeper levels of sediments or sedimentary rocks yield successively older fossils. For some transitions from one species to another, one can find a well-characterized series of transitional specimens leading the observer across the species "boundaries" (Kurten, 1976).
Sometime during the mid-Pleistocene period (roughly 100,000 to 250,000 years ago), a number of brown(same as grizzly) bears (Ursos arctos) probably became isolated by glaciers. Many probably perished on the ice; however, they apparently did not all disappear. Some survived due to the fact that "organisms vary" (Gould, 1977); that is, every litter of grizzlies has a variation in coat thickness, coat color, etc., which imparted a slight evolutionary advantage to some individuals of each litter. Successive, successful individuals repeated this simple process, yielding a rapid series of evolutionary changes (driven, presumably, by the combination of small population, and extreme selection pressure) in order to survive. Note that these new variants were not necessarily "better" in any absolute sense, or on any absolute "bear" scale of perfection: they were simply more in keeping with their new environment than their immediate ancestors or their more unfortunate siblings....