Bio Diversity and it’s loss in growth
Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of thehealth of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regionssupport fewer species. Rapid environmental changes typically cause mass extinctions. One estimate is that less than 1% of the species that have existed on Earth areextant.[verification needed] Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoiceon (the last 540 million years) marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellularphyla first appeared. The next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In theCarboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of plant and animal life. The Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst; vertebrate recovery took 30 million years. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago, and has often attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs. The period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named theHolocene extinction, the reduction is caused primarily by human impacts, particularly habitat destruction. Conversely, biodiversity impacts human health in a number of ways, both positively and negatively. The United Nations designated 2011-2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity.
...Hand out : Biodiversity
Biological Diversity or Biodiversity - is the variety (diversity) of all life forms on earth, encompassing all plants, animals, microorganisms and the intricate ecosystems they form.
- the totality of ecosystems, species, and genes within the area.
Levels of Biodiversity
1. Species Diversity (Different Life Forms)
2. Genetic Diversity (Different characteristics of plants, animals & other living organisms)
3. Ecosystem Diversity (Different types of Ecosystem)
Species: Two individuals are named to be of the same species if they can reproduce and their offspring is fertile. Species are the units of biodiversity.
a group of related or similar organisms capable of breeding freely to produce fertile offspring. It is the basic unit of biological classification and hence, its use as a measure of biodiversity.
Species Diversity - refers to the variety of species found within a discrete geographical boundary. It is usually measured in terms of the total number of species found within a particular area.
Importance of Biodiversity
To maintain or restore healthy ecosystem functioning
To maintain photosynthetic fixation of solar energy, the energy input for the world
To maintain water cycles and protect watersheds
To avoid climatic change
To maintain storage and cycling of nutrients
To maintain soil production and avoid soil erosion
...We can no longer see the continued loss of biodiversity as an issue separate from the core concerns of society: to tackle poverty, to improve the health, prosperity and security of present and future generations, and to deal with climate change. Each of those objectives is undermined by current trends in the state of our ecosystems, and each will be greatly strengthened if we finally give biodiversity the priority it deserves.
The Majesty of Life
When we say we want to save the planet, we use the word "biodiversity" to encompass this entire concept - which, granted, is a big one.
Biodiversity: Life, the world, the variation of life for the entire globe.
It’s a big idea with a long history.
Biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species, the product of four billion years of evolution.
But the word “Biodiversity” itself is actually quite new.
"Biodiversity" was coined as a contraction of "biological diversity" in 1985.
And as politicians, scientists, and conservationists became more interested in the state of the planet and the amazing complexity of life we became quite attached to this new word.
And why were we talking so much about Biodiversity?
The world has begun, relatively recently, to lose species and habitats at an ever-increasing and alarming rate.
How long will the earth be able to sustain the human race at the rate that it is going with all the destruction of humans? In Daniel Quinn’s essay The New Renaissance, he shows how dangerous humanity is. He shows that we need a change for the better as a whole or humanity will go extinct. If we don’t find something significant to change the way we are living and make it more environmentally friendly then society has no chance in surviving.
Earth will not be able to sustain the human rate if it doesn’t change in the next two hundred years. The human population is increasing every day, where it should be at a one birth to one death rate. Although having a big family with a bunch of children running around is fun, it is not good for the environment. If there were some way that there could only be two children to ever pair of adults than it would have out the environment significantly. There is already six billions on the earth today, and if keeps at the rate it is increasing than there will be a fifty percent increase half way through the century. It will take a lot of power water and money to sustain all those people. Even though that is a terrible thing to think about, Quinn also shows us that “in order to maintain the biomass that is tied up in six billion of us, we have to gobble up 200 species a day in addition – all the food we produce in the ordinary way”(77). By this, he is saying every single day we need the kill off two hundred species...
... A Detailed explanation Biodiversity!
What is Biodiversity ?
The word 'biodiversity' is a contraction (short form) of biological diversity. Diversity is a concept which refers to the range of variation or differences among some set of entities; biological diversity thus refers to variety within the living world (here a habitat).
The term 'biodiversity' is indeed commonly used to describe the number, variety and variability of living organisms.
From the above explanation it is clear that biodiversity is the variety or different living organisms present in a particular habitat.
Meaning of the word Biodiversity.
As read from d above explanations Biodiversity, Biodiversity can be broken down and represented like this
Biological=Consisting of all living beings
Types of Biodiversity
There are three major kinds of Biodiversity they are:-
1. Diversity of species- Number of different species that are present in the universe(>1.7Million)
2. Genetic Diversity-Here the inside a species there are different configurations.
3. Ecosystem Diversity- Variety of habitats around the world eg.Deserts, Tundra’s,Marine ecosystem
DISTRIBUTION OF BIODIVERSITY
Flora and fauna diversity depends on-
...Biodiversity is comprised of the totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region. The occurrence of various kinds of flora and fauna in a region reflects its biological diversity or biodiversity. In most parts of the world which are habitable, the living world abounds in biodiversity. In a patch of forest, there is a wide variety of insects, animals, plants and trees.
All plant and animal species cannot occur at one place. Whether or not a species can occur on a site is determined by environmental conditions of site and range of tolerance of species. Biologically rich and unique habitats are being perished, fragmented and degraded due to increasing human activities, resource consumption and pollution. Biodiversity loss is now one of the most pressing crises. How to check the loss of species and erosion of gene pool is one of the major challenges to science.
Systemic work on identifying and naming species has been in progress for the last two centuries. But still, the numbers of species collected, described and named so far are much less than the actual number of species present. The known and described number of species of all organisms on earth is between 1.7 and 1.8 million, which is fewer than the 15 per cent of the actual number. The predicted number of total species varies from 5 to 50 million and averages at 14 million. There are many more species that have not yet been described, especially in the...
...The built environment has the potential to have a major impact on biodiversity, not least with the increasingly demanding requirements to design more energy efficient and airtight buildings, leaving less space for species to inhabit.
Biodiversity under threat: There is much public concern about threats to global biodiversity. Industrial pollution, changes in agricultural practices and climate change, are all having a direct impact onbiodiversity. In this book the Editors provide a broad view of the many threats to global biodiversity imposed by human-induced changes and an overview of the policy responses required to combat them.This excellent text includes the work of some 44 authors and offers a solid description of the current understanding of threats to biodiversity with a range of illustrative examples - a valuable point of reference for ecologists, environmental scientists, and students as well as, policymakers and all other environmental professionals.
MANY SPECIES: ONE PLANET, ONE FUTURE
The UNEP has selected Pittsburg as the North American host city to join WED-2010.The theme of this year WED is 'Many Species: One Planet, One Future', highlighting the theme of 'Biodiversity- Ecosystem Management and the Green Economy'.
EVERY YEAR June 5 is celebrated as the World Environment Day all over the world. World Environment Day is celebrated to stimulate...
...UNIQUE AND THREATENED BIODIVERSITY
The patchwork of isolated islands, the tropical location of the country, and the once extensive areas of rainforest have resulted in high species diversity in some groups of organisms and a very high level of endemism. There are five major and at least five minor centers of endemism, ranging in size from Luzon, the largest island (103,000 km²), which, for example, has at least 31 endemic species of mammals, to tiny Camiguin Island (265 km²) speck of land north of Mindanao, which has at least two species of endemic mammals. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise.
At the very least, one-third of the more than 9,250 vascular plant species native to the Philippines are endemic. Plant endemism in the hotspot is mostly concentrated at the species level; there are no endemic plant families and 26 endemic genera. Gingers, begonias, gesneriads, orchids, pandans, palms, and dipterocarps are particularly high in endemic species. For example, there are more than 150 species of palms in the hotspot, and around two-thirds of these are found nowhere else in the world. Of the 1,000 species of orchids found in the Philippines, 70 percent are restricted to the hotspot.
The broad lowland and hill rain forests of the Philippines,...
Biodiversity is the biological variety or diversity of life on Earth (Anup). It is a connection between all organisms ("10 Surprising Threats to Biodiversity"); these organisms are all part of a “biologically diverse Earth.” Biodiversity enhances productivity in an ecosystem in which all species have an important role to play. Not only does it enhance productivity but also when it is conserved and healthy, it offers us many different services and benefits. These services include:
Ecosystem services such as protection of water resources, soil formation and protection, nutrient store and recycling, etc.
Biological resources such as food, wood products, medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs, future resources, etc.
and lastly, Social benefits such as cultural values, recreation and tourism, and research, education, and monitoring.
Genetic diversity coming from biodiversity also decreases the possibility of extinction in the wild. Keeping species from dying helps other species stay alive because all species depend on each other for survival. Ecological balance and biodiversity are important for the whole planet (Anup). However, we as humans are destroying Earth’s biodiversity. Some of the biggest threats to Earth’s biodiversity are: