Billie Essay - 1955 Words

TOP ESSAY WRITING SERVICES REVIEWS


Rank
Service
General
Prices

1
  • Since 2008
  • Free revisions
  • Money-back guaranty
  • Up to 5% for the first order. Up to 15% for the orders starting from 2nd

from $9.97/pp

visit site

2
  • Since 2009
  • Free title page, revisions
  • Discount policy
  • Satisfaction guarantee
  • More than 100 000 orders delivered

from $9.97/pp

visit site

3
  • Since 2010
  • PhD holding authors only
  • SMS notifications & VIP support
  • Discount policy

from $22/pp

visit site

4
  • Since 2010
  • 24/7 support team
  • More than 500 writers
  • Money-back guaranty
  • Up to 15% discounts

from $9.97/pp

visit site

 

StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes

Products

About

@2017 studym.wressy.com

Exclusive

  1. Home >
  2. Essays >
  3. Billie

Billie

Only available on StudyMode Open Document Save to my library

Please sign up to read full document.

Text Preview Why did the United States under-estimate the difficulties in bringing order and development to Afghanistan and Iraq?

At the start of the twenty-first century, the United States engaged in two military interventions, the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003. What were supposed to be short, sharp wars dragged the US into the long and failed missions of reconstructing the Afghan and Iraqi states. Today, 97% of Afghanistan’s licit GDP is derived from foreign aid and efforts to guarantee stability are still being undermined by the Taliban-led insurgency. In fragile, conflict-driven Iraq, the population constantly struggles with ongoing water shortages, electricity scarcity and a broken economy. Given the immense costs of the two invasions, it is paramount to ask how it all could go so wrong. Focusing on the period of the Bush administration, this essay seeks to answer why the US under-estimated the difficulties in bringing order and development to Afghanistan and Iraq.

Dr Toby Dodge has identified several faulty assumptions that underpin military intervention, which explain why the US failed to bring order and development to Afghanistan and Iraq. One of these assumptions is that military force can achieve political ends, something which it did not do in Afghanistan. Henry A. Crumpton, a former CIA officer who was largely involved in ousting the Taliban, confessed that winning the war in Afghanistan required the US to “get in at a local level and respond to people’s needs so that enemy forces cannot come in and take advantage.” In ignoring this fundamental aspect of counterinsurgency, efforts succeeded only in keeping urgent problems at bay while hoping that the situation in Afghanistan would improve on its own. This brings us to a second faulty assumption underpinning military intervention: the overestimation of the stability, competence and popularity of the intervener’s local allies.

What a fragile state on the verge of collapse could not survive was a badly designed government in the hands of an unskilful leader. With the help of the US, Afghanistan received both. The Bonn Agreement of December 2001 established a new constitution for Afghanistan, which left a hugely centralized government, in the hands of a US-picked elite, in charge of the country. In 2004, the US rejoiced as Hamid Karzai became the first democratically elected President of Afghanistan, believing that Afghanistan would now independently be able to engage in effective state building. Karzai, however, proved to be both uninterested in and incompetent for the role of reconstructing the Afghan state, and it did not take long until Afghans were complaining about the administration’s inability to meet the basic requirements of governance. Karzai appeased discredited warlords from the civil war period and dragged Afghanistan back to its failed past. He also used state assets to create a corrupt patronage network of clients completely bound to his leadership. In August 2009, Karzai was able to win the Afghan elections again, however this time with the help of fraud and corruption. The patrimonial, incompetent leadership of Karzai combined with the deeply centralized nature of the Afghanistan government, both which had been put in place by the US, are two important reasons to why Afghanistan remains a failed state today.

A third faulty assumption was that conflict would be short in duration. Barfield agrees with Dodge’s assertion in arguing that the reason for the failure of reconstructing the Afghan state was “the short-term political calculation driving US foreign policy.” Having ousted the Taliban from Afghanistan, the US began mobilizing for its war in Iraq. In 2005, the US presented Afghanistan as a “mission accomplished” and announced plans to reduce the number of troops in the country. The reality from within Afghanistan looked completely different, however, as dissatisfaction with the slow pace of economic development... Show More

Please sign up to read full document.

YOU MAY ALSO FIND THESE DOCUMENTS HELPFUL

POPULAR ESSAYS

Enzyme Wind Turbine Writing Essay Teacher Essay Iraq Essay Feminism Essay Closed-circuit television Essay Null hypothesis Essay

Share this Document

Cancel Send

Join millions of other students and start your research

Become a StudyMode Member

SIGN UP - IT's FREE

Have a great research document you think will help inspire other StudyMode members?

Share your document

Upload Now

Get full access to more research and tools for only $0.33/day

Upgrade your Membership

GET PREMIUM @2017 studym.wressy.com Legal Site Map Advertise studym.wressy.com, Online Education, Hollywood, CA

More great study tools:


{"hostname":"studym.wressy.com","essaysImgCdnUrl":"\/\/images-study.netdna-ssl.com\/pi\/","useDefaultThumbs":true,"defaultThumbImgs":["\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_1.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_2.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_3.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_4.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_5.png"],"thumb_default_size":"160x220","thumb_ac_size":"80x110","isPayOrJoin":false,"essayUpload":false,"site_id":1,"autoComplete":false,"isPremiumCountry":false,"userCountryCode":"US","logPixelPath":"\/\/smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","tracking_url":"\/\/smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","cookies":{"unlimitedBanner":"off"},"essay":{"essayId":37864636,"categoryName":"Geography","categoryParentId":null,"currentPage":1,"format":"text","pageMeta":{"text":{"startPage":1,"endPage":7,"pageRange":"1-7","totalPages":7}},"access":"premium","title":"Billie","additionalIds":[3,52,18,17,27],"additional":["Business \u0026 Economy","Business \u0026 Economy\/Organizations","Military Sciences","Literature","Sports \u0026 Recreation"],"loadedPages":{"html":[],"text":[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]}},"user":null,"canonicalUrl":"http:\/\/studym.wressy.com\/essays\/Billie-1692525.html","pagesPerLoad":50,"userType":"member_guest","ct":10,"ndocs":"1,500,000","pdocs":"6,000","cc":"10_PERCENT_1MO_AND_6MO","signUpUrl":"https:\/\/studym.wressy.com\/signup\/","joinUrl":"https:\/\/studym.wressy.com\/join","payPlanUrl":"\/checkout\/pay","upgradeUrl":"\/checkout\/upgrade","freeTrialUrl":"https:\/\/studym.wressy.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fstudym.wressy.com%2Fcheckout%2Fpay%2Ffree-trial\u0026bypassPaymentPage=1","showModal":"get-access","showModalUrl":"https:\/\/studym.wressy.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fstudym.wressy.com%2Fjoin","joinFreeUrl":"\/essays\/?newuser=1","siteId":1,"facebook":{"clientId":"306058689489023","version":"v2.9","language":"en_US"}} tracking img