Battle Of Ahzab Khandak Essay - 1345 Words



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Battle Of Ahzab Khandak

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Text Preview Battle of Ahzab (Khandak)
1. Brief history
This battle was occurred in month of Syawal during 5th year of Hijra (February of 627 AD). This war has two names, which is Ahzab and Khandak. Ahzab come from an Arabic word “الاحزاب” which mean confederates which being use by the Quran in Surah Al-Ahzab verses 9-33 to show the alliance of the Jews and the Quraish during the battle. In this Surah, Allah has clearly told the story of this battle and how He sent aid to help the Muslim. The name Khandak was also an Arabic words “الخندق” which means "ditch".1 This word was referring to the trenches dug by Muslims surround Madinah while getting prepared for the battle. This Arabic term comes from Persian word ‘kandak’ which mean ‘what has been dug’.2 2. Why it happen

The Battle of Ahzab involving Arab and Jewish tribes which were not happy with the Prophet Muhammad SAW. This was started when the Bani al-Nadir and Bani Qaynuqa wanted to avenge the Prophet SAW because expelling them from Madinah.3 The leader of Bani al-Nadir, Huyayy b. Akhtab tried to incite all Arabs for joining them and work together to fight against the Prophet SAW and destroyed the Muslim. First, he and other Jews leader went to Makkah and met Abu Sufyan to make an alliance. The Quraish which also bear a grudge with Muslim because of their lost in the previous battle agreed to form an alliance with the Jewish.4 According to Rahman (2009), Ibn Kathir states:  "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Jews of Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet".

3. Preparation of the army
Most of Confederate soldiers were collected by the polytheists of Makkah led by Abu Sufyan. He took 4,000 infantry (foot soldiers), 300 cavalry, and between 1,000 to 1,500 camel rider. Besides, Bani al-Nadir started inciting the nomads in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula (Najd). They also bribe Bani Gatafan to join forces by bribe them with half of Bani al-Nadir’s harvest which succeeds to bring 2,000 men and 300 horsemen to their force.5 Bani al-Nadir also succeeds convincing other tribes like Bani Fazara, Bani Murra, Bani Asyja’, Bani Sulaim, Bani Sa’d, Bani Asad and some more to become their ally for attacking Makkah. Totally, the strength of the Confederate armies was almost 10,000 infantry and 600 horsemen which will confront with 3,000 Muslim armies.6 4. War strategy

A week before the Confederate armies arrived in Madinah, Prophet SAW and all Muslims had been warned by their ally, Bani Khuza’a.7 Prophet Muhammad SAW then gathers all Madinah peoples to discuss on what are the best strategies that can be used in order to confront such a huge army. As usual in other battles, Prophet SAW wanted to avoid fighting and only do that when there are no other alternative so that he can minimize the loss.8 One of the Companions, Salman Al-Farisi then gives suggestion. He is a person who knows a lot of war strategy that is still not known in the Arabian Peninsula. He suggested to Prophet SAW to dig a trench around Madinah and strengthened the city from inside.9 The trench will give huge advantage to Muslims which only have few numbers of soldiers by acting as defense mechanism. Inside of the city, wall of all houses that facing toward the enemy were been strengthened and all woman and children were placed in each of the houses.10 All of this effort took about six days to be finished. Then Prophet SAW made his military camp near a small hill named Sal’ and arranged all Muslim soldiers there. Besides, Prophet SAW also tried to demoralize and break the enemy unity. During the siege started, Prophet SAW sent an offer peace to Bani Gatafan, the second largest contingent in the Confederates armies.11 This offer succeeds to rise... Show More

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