Battle of Ahzab (Khandak)
1. Brief history
This battle was occurred in month of Syawal during 5th year of Hijra (February of 627 AD). This war has two names, which is Ahzab and Khandak. Ahzab come from an Arabic word “الاحزاب” which mean confederates which being use by the Quran in Surah Al-Ahzab verses 9-33 to show the alliance of the Jews and the Quraish during the battle. In this Surah, Allah has clearly told the story of this battle and how He sent aid to help the Muslim. The name Khandak was also an Arabic words “الخندق” which means "ditch".1 This word was referring to the trenches dug by Muslims surround Madinah while getting prepared for the battle. This Arabic term comes from Persian word ‘kandak’ which mean ‘what has been dug’.2 2. Why it happen
The Battle of Ahzab involving Arab and Jewish tribes which were not happy with the Prophet Muhammad SAW. This was started when the Bani al-Nadir and Bani Qaynuqa wanted to avenge the Prophet SAW because expelling them from Madinah.3 The leader of Bani al-Nadir, Huyayy b. Akhtab tried to incite all Arabs for joining them and work together to fight against the Prophet SAW and destroyed the Muslim. First, he and other Jews leader went to Makkah and met Abu Sufyan to make an alliance. The Quraish which also bear a grudge with Muslim because of their lost in the previous battle agreed to form an alliance with the Jewish.4 According to Rahman (2009), Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Jews of Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet".
3. Preparation of the army
Most of Confederate soldiers were collected by the polytheists of Makkah led by Abu Sufyan. He took 4,000 infantry (foot soldiers), 300 cavalry, and between 1,000 to 1,500 camel rider. Besides, Bani al-Nadir started inciting the nomads in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula (Najd). They also bribe Bani Gatafan to join forces by bribe them with half of Bani al-Nadir’s harvest which succeeds to bring 2,000 men and 300 horsemen to their force.5 Bani al-Nadir also succeeds convincing other tribes like Bani Fazara, Bani Murra, Bani Asyja’, Bani Sulaim, Bani Sa’d, Bani Asad and some more to become their ally for attacking Makkah. Totally, the strength of the Confederate armies was almost 10,000 infantry and 600 horsemen which will confront with 3,000 Muslim armies.6 4. War strategy
A week before the Confederate armies arrived in Madinah, Prophet SAW and all Muslims had been warned by their ally, Bani Khuza’a.7 Prophet Muhammad SAW then gathers all Madinah peoples to discuss on what are the best strategies that can be used in order to confront such a huge army. As usual in other battles, Prophet SAW wanted to avoid fighting and only do that when there are no other alternative so that he can minimize the loss.8 One of the Companions, Salman Al-Farisi then gives suggestion. He is a person who knows a lot of war strategy that is still not known in the Arabian Peninsula. He suggested to Prophet SAW to dig a trench around Madinah and strengthened the city from inside.9 The trench will give huge advantage to Muslims which only have few numbers of soldiers by acting as defense mechanism. Inside of the city, wall of all houses that facing toward the enemy were been strengthened and all woman and children were placed in each of the houses.10 All of this effort took about six days to be finished. Then Prophet SAW made his military camp near a small hill named Sal’ and arranged all Muslim soldiers there. Besides, Prophet SAW also tried to demoralize and break the enemy unity. During the siege started, Prophet SAW sent an offer peace to Bani Gatafan, the second largest contingent in the Confederates armies.11 This offer succeeds to rise...
...There is as much controversy amongst military historians surrounding the origin of
operational art as there is surrounding the origin and evolution ofhumankind. In order to
understand what operational art is and how it should be applied to present day military
operations it is first necessary to understand how operational art originated and how it
evolved. This section answers the question what is operational art, by looking first at it's
origins in theory and evolution in modern doctrine.
Operational art is defined today in joint doctrine as: The employment ofmilitary
forces to attain strategic and/or operational objectives through the design, organization,
integration, and conduct ofcampaigns, major operations, and battles. Operational art
translates the joint force commander's strategy into operational design, and, ultimately
tactical action, by integrating the key activities at all levels ofwar.
The Army definition found in the 1993 version ofFM 100-5 is: The employment
ofmilitary forces to attain strategic goals through the design, organization, integration,
and execution ofbattles and engagements into campaigns and major operations. In war,
operational art determines when, where, and for what purpose major forces will fight over
The joint and army doctrinal definitions are not really that different, their
similarities offer some clues to understanding the origin ofoperational art. Both
definitions clearly state that...
1. The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Muslim sources, the Muslims attacked Jews who had barricaded themselves in a fort.
2. On the reasons for the attack, Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in Khaybar of the Banu Nadir, who were inciting hostilities among with neighboring Arab tribes against the Islamic community in Medina. Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri, while giving full credence to Watt's view, claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns.
3. The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years until they were expelled by caliph Umar. The imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from non-Muslims under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community. In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to...
Battle of Khaybar
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For other uses, see Khaybar (disambiguation).
|Battle of Khaybar |
|Part of Campaigns of Muhammad |
|Muslim victory |
|Muslim army |Jews of Khaybar oasis |
|Commanders and leaders |
|Muhammad |al-Harith ibn Abu Zaynab†[citation|
|Ali ibn Abi Talib |needed] |
|1,600 |Khaybar |
...BATTLE OF UHAD
a. Quraish. The main objective of the Quraish, as before, was to eliminate the Muslims and knock out their base at Madina.
b. Muslims. For Muslims, it was the battle of their survival. At this stage they could not hope to eliminate their enemies at Makkah. They however wanted to establish their military reputation and consolidate the gains of the Battle of Badr.
| | |Quraish |Muslims |
|a. |Commander |Abu Sufian |Muhammad (peace be upon him) |
|b. |Infantry |3000 |650 |
|c. |Armoured men |700 |100 |
|d. |Horse Cavalry |200 |50 |
|e. |Camels |3000 |Not known |
Assembly of Forces and Move
a. Quraish. The Quraish started war preparations from the day they arrived in Makkah after their defeat at Badr. Abu Sufian wished to attack with a much larger force to ensure complete...
...The Battle of Tabuk
The lofty and strong fort, which had been built by the side of a spring on the road leading from Hijr to Damascus in the border area of the territory of Syria, was called Tabuk. In those times Syria was one of the colonies of the Eastern Roman Empire. Its capital was Constantinople. Its frontier people were the followers of Christianity and the chiefs of the districts were satellites of the Ruler of Syria who himself took orders directly from the Roman Emperor.
The rapid penetration and expansion of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and the brilliant conquests by the Muslims in the Hijaz were being noticed in areas beyond the Hijaz, and were making their enemies tremble and think of ways and means to check this tide.
The fall of the Government of Makkah, the adoption of Islam by the prominent chiefs of the Hijaz, and the bravery and sacrifices of the Muslim warriors, made the Roman Emperor decide to launch a surprise attack on the Muslims with the help of a well-equipped army, because he felt his empire to be in grave danger on account of the extraordinary influence and expansion of Islam. He was very much afraid of the increase in the military and political power of the Muslims.
In those days Rome was the only powerful adversary of Iran and possessed the greatest political and military strength. It was very proud on account of the victories which it had achieved against Iran and the defeat which it had inflicted on the Iranian army....
...Battle of Tabuk
1. Brief history
This battle occurred in the month of Rajab, the 9th year of Hijra (October, 630 AD) when in the height of summer.1 This battle took place in Tabuk. The reason for this war erupted was because Al-Ghassain, the Governor of Al-Balqa had killed an envoy of Prophet SAW’s ambassadors.2 Likewise, firm actions been taken against them who are breaking the term of their treaty with the Muslim.3 Besides, thisbattle also happen because the Muslims get news from traders who had just returned from Syam that the Romans has brought together a large force with the support of Arab Christians from tribal Judzam, Lakhm and those who were under Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) rules.4 The main reason why they do that was because the Romans had felt threatened with the rapid rise of the Muslims power, especially after the opening of Makkah. Hence, they would like to demolish Muslims from Arabian Peninsula.
2. Preparations of the army
Muslims were ready with 30,000 troops, including 10,000 from the armed horsemen.5 Prophet SAW himself led this expedition. While Prophet SAW and the Muslims were preparing, a verse from Surah At-Tawbah was revealed as reminder for them to fight the nonbeliever:6
“Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the...
...In order to be successful in any business, strategic plans need to be developed, implemented, and accessed. The plans help define what is trying to be accomplished and the tools needed to carry it out. Anita Scism, was challenged by issues dealing with leadership style, unstable finances, events programming, and strategic planning when she became president of Walton Arts Center. With input from the board, staff members, and others she executed the strategic management process to determine the best growth strategy for the arts center. This included analyzing the business opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses, and mission and goals. To accomplish this, Anita Scism had to figure out ways to incorporate Bill Mitchell’s (the previous president) plans and make them effective. Therefore, The Walton Arts Center started providing additional services and promoted employees. As a result, the people in the community were given the chance to enhance their lives through the educational and cultural experiences they received through the arts center. Companies and sponsors were pleased with the positive impact The Walton Arts Center was having on the community center. Another decision the company made was to increase ticket sales and class and artist fees. In time, the center was able to experience an increase in net assets. This increase resulted from enhanced fundraising efforts including increased corporate and foundation support, increased conference revenue, and...
...The Battle of Salamis
The naval battle of Salamis was one of the last great battles of the Greco-Persian Wars, An invasion of Greece by the Persians Led by Persian King forces cunningly defeated Xerxes larger fleet under the leadership of Athenian general Themistocles.
Xerxes, the son of King Darius was aggressive in the building of his empire. To get revenge for his late his father's defeat at Marathon, he led an army of 150,000 men and a navy consisting of 600 triremes (war vessels) into Greece, defeating the Greeks in the infamous Battle of Thermopylae.
During August 480 BCE Athenians fled to the Island of Salamis after the Greek loss at the Battle of Thermopylae whilst Persian forces ravished their city Athens. Joined by the remaining Greek fleet after their Battle in Artemisium with the Athenian commander Themistocles. This Greek presence on Salamis, an island so close to the recently captured Athenian Harbour, Phaleron, only created problems for the Persians as they couldn’t use their port as easy as they had planned. It was vital that they had this ease as Persians were planning to proceed to the Isthmus of Cornith, a narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, and they need to make frequent trips back and forth with transport ships full of food to feed the many soldiers on the Isthmus therefore...