Barbara McClinktock, Transposition “jumping genes”
Group “Jumping Genes”
Alicia, Edeline, Yves, Brittinie, Gaelle
Jumping genes are transposable elements that move from one location to another on a genome. McClintock showed that chromosome swapped genetic information by crossing over when sex cells are formed. This experiment was designed to reveal the genic composition of the short arm of chromosome 9. A rare phenomenon occurred in maize and has resulted in high frequencies in the cultures. Heterochromatic materials of the chromosomes have a role to play, which is in inducing and controlling the type of variegation and its time and frequency of occurrence. The maize cultures were found to have a large number of mutable loci. Each locus such as Wx, C and Ds are each responsible for a particular trait. The transfer of a knob or bump on the chromosome during the formation of sex cells has occurred and the rings on the chromosome could express different genes. The dissociation of the chromosome of the short arm of chromosome 9 cause purple spotted kernels. The dissociation loci act as an activator and inserts and disable the color gene. This results in white or yellow kernels. The mechanism underlying the phenomenon of variegation is basically the same in all organisms. This experiment shows the different effects of what could happen in mitosis or meiosis. A mutation could occur at any time. In the maize, it happens to be chromosome 9 that carries the mutation. The traits on the chromosome are expressed for their function on the chromosome. This experiment reorganizes the genome to see what happens in mutations for this plant. Mutations produced by transposition are a source of variation to drive the process of evolution.
McClintock conducted her experiment with several maize genes using a method now known as deletion mapping. Mclintock made use of two genetic marker that were on chromosome 9 of the maize (Nanjundiah, 1996). One of the genes affected seed coat color. C was for colored and c was for colorless and the second was for the composition of food reserve Wx for starchy and wx was for starchy (Nanjundiah, 1996). C and Wx are dominant which exert their effects in a single dose. Allele’s c and wx are recessive and exerted their traits in double doses (Nanjundiah, 1996). A plant that contained the chromosomal combination wx C/Wx c, with a knob on the chromosome that contained the C, was crossed with a plant that contained no knobs, two copies of c and one each of Wx and wx (Nanjundiah, 1996). Many different types of progeny were produced. Some possessed the colored characters with starchy, this was because of the exchange of that part of the chromosome containing the knob (Nanjundiah, 1996). In the created progeny, the presence of the gene that was located closest to the knob was because of the knob itself, this observation compelled McClintock to think of genes as characters on chromosomes (Nanjundiah, 1996). In this experiment she discovered several facts about chromosomes and their genes but it wasn’t the only experiment she conducted. In further experiment she began to study gene transposition. She crossed a male parent that was composed of CC Ds Ds Ac Ac with cc Ds Ds Ac Ac. Ac is an activator and Ds is a Dissociator are two unstable genetic elements discovered by McClintock (Nanjundiah, 1996) . Half of the resulting progeny showed absence of Ac, and Ds is stable. In the second half a chromosomal break occurred and C was lost because of Ds, resulting in some colourless patches (Nanjundiah, 1996). But in one kernel Ds wandered into C and turned it into an unstable colorless variant which made numerous colored patches. She observed that broken ends of maize chromosomes behaved in abnormal ways and that repairing the breaks required genetic activity (Nanjundiah, 1996). Genetic instability didn’t pose an issue but...
Barbara Kruger was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1945. She studied at
Syracuse University, Parsons School of Design, and the School of Visual Arts in
New York and has exhibited all over the world.
She has worked from having a design job at "Mademoiselle Magazine", soon
becoming the head designer. Later working as a graphic designer, art director,
and picture editor in the art departments at "House and Garden", "Aperture"
and other publications. This greatly influenced her work as an artist.
Barbara Kruger has a very unique style when it comes to her artwork, her
background in design is the reason she is so well known. Her artwork comes off
very moving and strong but also very simple. She achieves this look by mainly
using the colours red, black and white, while adding and manipulating images
and words to promote strong emotions dealing with crisis, disasters, and people.
Her main topics she chooses to express threw her art is supporting legal
abortion and fighting domestic violence, also women's supporting role in
To describe the true intent of Barbara Kruger's art a women named Juliana
Engberg said it perfectly "Barbara Kruger's on going project is to provoke
questions about power and its effect on the human condition: to investigate the
way power is constructed, used and abused. In her works, which have become...
...Barbara Baynton - Squeaker's Mate
The marginalisation of the female protagonist begins with the title of the story and stays true until the end. For the majority of the story she is referred to as “Squeaker's Mate”, “she”, “her”, and “his mate”. When she becomes gravely injured the men of the small outback Australian settlement caution Squeaker against informing her the injury is permanent, because it might to damage to her feminine sensibilities. A page later and Squeaker says to his prostrate partner when she says she will be up soon to help around the home again:
”Yer won't. Yer back's broke,' said Squeaker laconically. “That's wot's wrong er yer; injoory t' th' spine. Doctor says that means back's broke, and yer won't never walk no more. No good not t' tell yer, cos I can't be doin' everything'.”
The Australian brush, always harsh, was particularly dangerous during the late nineteenth century, when Barbara Baynton's story, Squeaker's Mate, is set, and doubly or triply so for the women. It was a hard life, and if you survived the first few years, you were aged before your time. Squeaker's days are filled with building his home and staking his claim on the land, and his nights are a swill of brandy and cheap(er) liquor from the store. His mate – who provided themoney to set up the property – is a burden except when she is working, and when she works, she works hard. The accident, which leaves her crippled, is a tough economic blow....
...as a competent journalist and was chosen to be part of the press core that accompanied President Nixon on his historic trip to China.
Enticed by an unprecedented $1 million annual salary, Walters accepted a job at ABC. She debuted as the first woman coanchor of a network evening news program in October 1976. Walters’ male colleagues were openly critical of her position and salary. Among the most outspoken were Walter Cronkite and Walters’ own ABC coanchor Harry Reasoner. Critics also remained skeptical of Walters’ validity as a credible journalist. Furthermore, because of her slight lisp, Walters was famously parodied as “Baba Wawa” on Saturday Night Live by the late comedian Gilda Radner.
In December 1976, Walters launched the first Barbara Walters Special, which featured President and First Lady Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter. The following year, she set precedent by arranging the first joint interview with Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt. In 1979, Walters became a part-time correspondent for the ABC news magazine program 20/20. She scored an exclusive interview with Richard Nixon in 1980 (his first TV interview since his resignation in 1974).
In 1981, Walters’ perennial pre-Oscar interview program premiered (with actress Katharine Hepburn), and, in 1984, she signed on as 20/20’s full-time cohost.In 1995, Walters conducted the first interview with Christopher Reeve after the horseback riding accident that left him...
Barbara Ehrenreich began her research to explore how people attempting to move from welfare to work are managing—if at all. This exploration also extended to those who are apart of the working class and having not been on welfare. Attempting to place herself in the position of her subjects, Ehrenreich strived to see if she were able to survive on the minimal income provided by a series of low level and low paying jobs. In was her foreknowledge of laws and the inclusion of these laws in Nickel and Dimed that brought about exposing historical and present-day 21st century contradictory practices, laws, and regulations that exploit the poor working class (if not through her experiment but by the subjects’ honest experience). In addition to exposing this existing institutionalized discrimination, whether unconsciously or consciously, Ehrenreich demonstrates with her approach the severe state of class and racial segregation as it pertains to what jobs are available and to whom and what kind of lives are produced in such a class divided American society.
Consequently, Ehrenreich’s method does not come without any flaws. It can be argued that when trying to place herself in the shoes of her subjects, she possessed some essential advantages that the average poor working class citizen simply do not have such as her level of educational attainment, White privilege regardless of her class status, and start-off funds that allowed her both the mobility...
Society, Sex, and Slogans
"I want people to be drawn into the space of the work. And a lot of people are like
me in that they have relatively short attention spans. So I shoot for the window of opportunity."
After reading Edward Said's essay "Opponents, Audiences, Constituencies, and Community" I knew that the work of Barbara Kruger would be very exciting to explore. Born in 1945, Kruger is an artist who became extremely popular in the 1980's for her collaged artwork. Her artwork creates questions and entices responses form viewers. The collages are able to create a playful but meaningful dialogue on important political and social issues. Responding critically to the world around her through social, sexual, and political artwork, Kruger bold style creates a direct interaction with the viewer, which in turn enables the viewer to respond objectively to the ideas Kruger has presented.
After studying at Syracuse University and with Diane Arbus at Parsons School of Design, Kruger worked as a graphic designer and later got work as a head designer for Mademoiselle Magazine. Keeping with a very graphic style, Kruger's work looks like it could come straight out of a magazine. This work can be very appealing to a wide audience because of its straightforward graphic nature. With work reminiscent of advertisements and billboards, Kruger used photographic images with a brief declarative statement...
...Eco-feminism traces its beginning from the feminist movements such as the abolition of slavery and restraint for championing the rights of women. Barbara Kingsolver is a contemporary American author. Kingsolver dedicated herself into political and social activism.
She also believes in writing that promotes social change in society. Barbara Kingsolver novel The Bean Trees reflects this commitment. The Bean Trees concerns Taylor Greer, a young woman who leaves her small hometown in Kentucky to search for a more fulfilling life. While driving west across the United States, Taylor becomes the protector of a battered child whom she names Turtle. Taylor and the child finally settle in Tucson, Arizona, where they share the home of Lou Ann Ruiz, a deserted young mother. Kingsolver uses her writing to address social and political issues that are important to her. By creating a society for her women in the novel, Kingsolver is able to bring out the importance of community and the contribution that it makes to the life of everyone.
Kingsolver introduces a feminist issue which focuses on the feminist absurdity of childcare, sexual harassment and the capabilities of women in typically male-dominated workplaces, through the novel The Bean Trees. The Bean Trees depicts to the wisteria vines that grow with the help of rhizobia, which resembles alike that of the bean plant. It also shows the struggle of the plant to survive from the frost, to the blossoms....
...Evolution of Leah
Children are like gold. They are malleable and easily impressionable. They have the ability to be molded and remolded, formed and reformed before the piece is finally finished. That final piece is what is referred to as a consciousness, or self-realization. As stated in the Afterword of Points of View: An Anthology of Short Stores, by James Moffett and Kenneth R. McElheny, “Perceiving oneself as separate from other people and things initiates the breaking down of reality that characterizes the mental activity of analysis. It also sets in motion the pursuit of self-realization that can lead to reintegration with the world.”(599)An example of that self-realization occurs with the character of Leah in The Poisonwood Bible, by Barbara Kingsolver.
Although we are not introduced to Leah until she is fourteen years old, it is fairly obvious that during her formative years as a child she was greatly influenced by her Baptist minister father, Nathan Price, a religious tyrant and guilt-ridden survivor of the Bataan Death March who feels that he is chosen to spread the Word to anyone who listens, by choice or by force. The family consists of Nathan, his wife, Orleanna, his eldest daughter, Rachel, 14 year old twin girls, Adah (who suffers from paralysis of the left side of her body) and Leah, and their youngest daughter, 5 year old Ruth May. The novel itself is written from the points of view of the five women, almost as if they are documenting in...
...While reading The Poisonwood Bible, I was fascinated by Kingsolver's extensive use of Lingala, the language used in the region of the Congo where the Price family lives. Lingala is a language in which each word has several meanings, and Kingsolver has the characters in the story use language to reflect themselves. Kingsolver also masterfully wields words to connote subtle ideas throughout the novel.
Throughout the novel are sprinkled many phrases in Lingala, phrases that are eventually learned or heard by any one of the narrators. For example, the villagers have names for three of the Price daughters. Leah, at first, is called "leba", meaning fig tree, and then later Anatole the schoolteacher calls her "beene-beene", meaning "as true as the truth can be." Adah is "benduka", "the crooked walker", but "benduka" spoken with a different emphasis, on the latter part of the word, is the name the villagers call a beautiful species of birds around their village. Rachel they call "mvula", the Lingala word for a pale white termite that comes out after rain. The villagers were fascinated and also disgusted with Rachel's appearance, and her long, white-blond hair. Ironically, Rachel was completely obsessed with her looks.
Each of the Price daughters has their own unique relationship to the Lingala language, and also language in general. Rachel, portrayed as a "platinum blonde", not very intelligent girl, is very egotistical, and cares only for her appearance and her own comfort....