Fatwa On Multi-Level Marketing SchemesBy : The Permanent Committee in Saudi Arabia for Research and Fatwâ|| |
The type of business based upon a pyramid scheme - or "multi-level marketing" as it is often called - is unlawful. The real objective of such a business is to obtain the commissions earned from introducing new members to the company and not to earn profits from the sale of the products themselves. At a time when the commissions may reach into the tens of thousands of dollars, the revenue collected from the sale of the products might only be a few hundred. Any person of sense who is given a choice in such a scheme will obviously go for the commission.
This is the reason why companies of this kind, when promoting themselves, depend so heavily on showing the large volume of substantial commissions that they are giving out. They attract customers by the promise of large returns against the payment of a relatively modest initial sum that is often represented as the "price of the product". The product this company is marketing, however, is merely a pretext to obtain commissions and to profit from those commissions.
With this being the true nature of the business, the Islamic ruling on it is that it is unlawful. The reasons for it being unlawful are as follows.
1. It entails the two kinds of unlawful interest:
a. Ribâ al-fadl: the interest resulting from an exchange of like for like in an unequal manner
b. Ribâ al-nasî'ah: the interest that is paid in lieu of credit.
The subscriber is paying a smaller sum at present in order to obtain a much larger sum of money at a later time in exchange for it. This is essentially an exchange of one sum of money for another sum of money of a greater value with a time delay. This is unlawful interest, as stated clearly by the sacred texts and agreed upon by consensus.
The product that is sold by the company is only a pretext for the real exchange that is going on. It is not intended in and of...
...a connected graph G, a spanning graph of G that is a tree is called a spanning tree. A spanning tree for an undirected graph G = (V,E) is a graph G’ = (V,E’) such that G’ is a tree. In other words, G’ has the same set of vertices, but edges have been removed from E so that the resulting graph is a tree. This amounts to saying that G’ is acyclic. If G is directed, it means that cycles have been removed. Since a tree with |V| vertices has |V|-1 edges, to generate a spanning tree of a connected graph G having |V| vertices and |E| edges we must delete all but (|V|-1) edges from the G. We cannot do that randomly because it has to be a tree which is acyclic and connected. We must delete |E|-(|V|-1) = |E|-|V|+1 edges, none of which is a bridge. A graph G can have several spanning tree.
Removal of any single edge from a spanning tree causes the graph to be unconnected.
For any spanning tree T of graph G, if an edge e that is not in T is added, a cycle is created. And also see one thing if we add any edge from ~G, we will also create a cycle.
Minimum Spanning Trees
A spanning tree is minimum if there is no other spanning tree with smaller cost. If the graph is unweighted, then the cost is just the number of edges. If it has weighted edges, then the cost is the sum of the edge weights of the edges in the spanning tree.
An example of...
Victor Adamchik Fall of 2005
1. Basic Vocabulary 2. Regular graph 3. Connectivity 4. Representing Graphs
A.Aho and J.Ulman acknowledge that “Fundamentally, computer science is a science of abstraction.” Computer scientists must create abstractions of real-world problems that can be represented and manipulated in a computer. Sometimes the process of abstraction is simple. For example, we use a logic to design a computer circuits. Another example - scheduling final exams. For successful scheduling we have to take into account associations between courses, students and rooms. Such set of connections between items is modeled by graphs. Let me reiterate, in our model the set of items (courses, students and rooms) won't be much helpful. We also have to have a set of connections between pairs of items, because we need to study the relationships between connections. The basic idea of graphs were introduced in 18th century by the great Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler. He used graphs to solve the famous Königsberg bridge problem. Here is a picture (taken from the internet)
21-127: Concepts of Mathematics
German city of Königsberg (now it is Russian Kaliningrad) was situated on the river Pregel. It had a park situated on the banks of the river and two islands. Mainland and islands were joined by seven bridges. A problem was whether it...
...Paul Erdos and Alfred Renyi. Their work suggested that systems such as communications could be effectively modelled by connecting nodes with randomly placed links. Their simple approach revitalised graph theory and led to the emergence of the field of random networks.
An important prediction of random network theory is regardless of the random placement of links most nodes will still have approximately the same number of links. In fact, in a random network the nodes follow a Poisson distribution with a bell shape (see Fig.1). Random networks are also called exponential, because the probability that a node is connected to k other sites decreases exponentially for large k. This is better described by the famous small world networks. It was Watts and Strogatz in 1998 that recognised that a class of random graphs could be categorised as small world networks. They noted that graphs could be classified according to their clustering coefficient and their diameter. Many random graphs show a small diameter and also have a small clustering coefficient. What Strogatz and Watts found was that in real world networks the diameter is still small but has a clustering coefficient significantly higher than expected by random chance. Watts and Strogatz thus proposed a simple model of random graphs with (a) a small diameter and (b) a large clustering coefficient.
I wasn't until 1998 when Albert-Lászlǒ Barabási...
...LAB # 1
Principles of Physics I Laboratory
In this lab motion will be represented by graphs that plots distance and velocity vs. time. A motion detector will be used to measure the time it takes for a high frequency sound pulse to travel from the detector to an object and back. By using this method sound can determine the distance to the object, or its position. This device will determine in what direction the woman in the video was walking and how fast she was walking. This information will be plotted on a graph and show the motion as the woman moves, whether she speed up or slowed down. Logger Pro will use the change in position to calculate the object’s velocity and acceleration. All of this information is in graph form. A qualitative analysis of the graphs of motion will help you develop an understanding of the concepts of kinematics.
The motion of an object can be measured using a motion detector. The detector helps in knowing where an object is according to an indication point. How fast and in what direction an object is moving, and how an object is accelerating is necessary in understanding the kinematics graphs.
The Motion detector uses pulses of ultrasound that bounces off of an object to determine the position of the person/object. As the person moves, the change in its position is measured many times each second....
“saBARdoo Nights” offers a new concept of partying. Unlike other bars our main advantage is the total customer service, the class ambience and affordability of our alcohols and foods. We also consider the open area and the sports hub a big plus to our business because we are very accustomed to just plain bars with music with nothing to do aside from drinking. The Disc Jockey’s booth will be place on the second floor in an elevated space for much metro feel.
The bar business is in boom since 1990’s here in Olongapo which started when Americans stay in the city. Until now, many bars are open for business and most of them are doing well because many tourist and people living within the area love to party and hang out.
While there are numerous bars here in the city, only 3 of them offers open area bar (Apo’s grille, Swell Bar and Pier One) and only two offers a sports area (Pier One, and Apo’s grille) which is only a dart board game and pool unlike in our bar we both have the dart gaming board and billiards plus other exciting new offerings to be discussed furthermore in the paper.
saBARdoo Nights’ marketing strategy is to emphasize the comfortability of every customer while going in a bar. The availability of other options while in our bar is also a strategy to let customers choose what they want to enjoy while...
Data Structures and Algorithms
Prepared by: Engr. Martinez
Graphs are of 2 types
Undirected Graph examples
Directed Graph example
Directed GraphGraph Relationships
Graph RelationshipsGraph Relationships
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Basic terms involved in graphs:
Degree of vertex
The number of edges incident onto the vertex For an undirected graph The degree of a vertex u is the number of edges connected to u. For a directed graph The out-degree of a vertex u is the number edges leaving u, and its in-degree is the number of edges ending at u
Degree of vertex
Edges are of 2 types
Directed edge: A directed edge between the vertices vi and vj is an ordered pair. It is denoted by . Undirected edge: An undirected edge between the vertices vi and vj is an unordered pair. It is denoted by (vi,vj).
Different Types of Graphs
Subgraph Connected graph Completely connected graph
A subgraph of a graph G = (V,E) is a...
Statement of the Problem:
1. What is demographic profile in terms of :
1.3. Year Level
2. How does respondent asses bar mixology practices in terms of:
3. How does respondent asses in bar mixology of flaring in terms of:
4. How does respondents appraisebar mixology the stability of equipment and tools:
4.2. Bar Equipments
5. How does respondents appraise the accommodations in terms of:
5.2. Servers Approach
5.3. Space Area
5.5. Lights/Sound Equipments
6. How does respondents attain the quality items in:
6.3. Non-Alcoholic Drinks/Cocktails
7. How does respondent appraise the different activities in terms of :
7.1. Beer Pong
7.2. Party Nights
7.3. Live Bands
Objective of the Study
To be able to appraise bar mixology practices in terms of flaring, mixing and bartending.
To be able to asses to bar mixology flaring in terms of tricks/exhibitions, entertainment, promoting and skills.
To be able to appraise bar mixology the stability of equipments and tools menu, bar equipments and facilities.
To be able to appraise the accommodations in terms of...
... 1. PIE CHART
This pie chart shows Mark’s monthly budget. The highest designation of his budget will go to his foods with 45% of his total allowance. Next is for lodging with 30% followed by the projects and fare which will have 10%. The least designation for his budget will be for his savings which has 5% only.
The bargraph shows the yearly tourist count for the provinces of region V. the province of Albay got the highest number of tourist with 450 000. It is followed by the provinces of Camarines Sur and Camarines Norte with 400 000 and 350 000 respectively. Sorsogon got 300 000 and Catanduanes with 250 000. The province of Masbate got the lowest number of tourist with 200 000.
3. LINE CHART
Here is a line chart for the number of absentees in class of Mr. Lozada for the 1st semester in 4 of her subjects. English has the most number of absents with 5 meetings. It is then followed by Math and Science with 4 and 3 meeting respectively while Filipino has the least absentees with only 2 meetings.
K-LINE DORMITORY SPORTS EQUIPMENT SPORT | NUMBER OF EQUIPMENT |
VOLLEYBALL | 7 |
BADMINTON | 7 |
SOCCER | 4 |
BASEBALL | 12 |
This table shows the number of sport equipment for each of the favorite sport of the K-LINE scholars. The dormitory has the most sufficient sport equipment with 12. And Soccer is the sport with less number of equipment with only 4 sport equipment.