Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory
The social-cognitive theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1925- ) has become the most influential theory of learning and development. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. This theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. The four-step pattern of observational learning consists of: (1) Attention, must be aware of the model; (2) Retention, ability of storing information which can be pulled up later and acted on; (3) Reproduction, must replicate the modeled behavior at some time; and (4) Motivation, must have some desire to perform modeled behavior. Bandura’s theory improves upon the behavioral interpretation of modeling provided by Miller and Dollard (1941). Bandura’s work is related to the theories of Vygotsky and Lave which emphasizes the central role of social learning. Classroom Aspects
Social-cognitive theory provides a foundation for improving students’ learning in the classroom. Students should be provided with models that the teacher expects them to learn. More specifically, instruction should support students’ engagement in each of the four-step pattern of observational learning. Students pay more attention to skills and materials if they are personally related to their own experiences. Students’ intention can be facilitated by using graphic organizers and other learning strategies. Teachers should support the motivational aspects by using rewards and punishments. This will shape the students’ behavior when they are provided either to the learner or to a model. To improve motivation, teachers should model attitudes that they want students to adopt such as being interested in the material.
Instruction should help students to see the learning leads to personally value and or important outcomes. Students must know if they...
SocialCognitiveTheory: Its Concepts and Affects in the Classroom
Edu 1001 Dr. Trasborg
St. John's University
Socialcognitivetheory serves as an explanation that an individual’s knowledge is obtained by observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. This theory can be executed in typically three areas of study that expand broadly from them. They are: psychology, communications, and education. When it comes to psychology, many studies have been completed that allow researches to come to the conclusion that it is how the individual takes in new behaviors, and how they are either punished with it or rewarded. In other words, it is how the individual’s brain works and allows them to intake new behavior upon the acts of others. The socialcognitivetheory is also present in communications that has a big impact on education. For example, media is a great outlet for young children to see celebrities fighting for good causes such as charities for rare diseases with no cure. If the child sees that a famous person is doing good deeds, children will bounce off of that good behavior and learn from it.
The socialcognitivetheory stemmed from work in the area of...
...CognitiveSocial Learning Theory
May 3, 2012
CognitiveSocial Learning Theory
I have selected this theory primarily because I believe that a great majority of our learning during the course of our entire lives is achieved by observation. Bandura’ssocialcognitivetheory is a learning based on the ideas that people learn by watching what others do and that human thought processes are central to understanding personality. While social cognition experts agree that there is a fair amount of influence on development generated by learned behavior displayed in the environment in which one grows up, they believe that the individual person is just as important in determining moral development. People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. These three factors are not static or independent; rather, they all thrive off of the other. According to social learning theory, modeling influences learning primarily through its informative functions. Those observers (children) retain a symbolic representation of the modeled behavior, which then serves as a blueprint for the behavior. We all essentially learn by example. We may not necessarily need to imitate the example or carry it out, but we...
...Albert Bandura’ssocialcognitivetheory (SCT), is defined as a cognitively oriented learning theory that emphasizes observational learning in determining of behavior. SCT is a stem from the social learning theory (SLT), with a back round dating back to the late 1800’s.2 Bandura presented the SCT with his book: Social Foundation of thought and action: A socialCognitiveTheory.2 SCT has shown children acquire much information through observational learning. Bandura focuses on: Observational Learning, Reciprocal Determinism, and Self-Efficacy.
Observational Learning. Bandura says one of the ways we learn is through observing others. This can be through a parent, teacher, another child, or a character on television. This type of learning is not always reinforced, a child can learn without engaging, but just by paying attention to the task at hand, termed as vicarious capability. A coding of this information has taken place to be modeled at a future time. This information can only be used if it is retained, which is possible by the human ability to form symbols. “Once stored… they must be converted into appropriate action for modeling to occur…2
Reciprocal Determinism. Bandura suggest that “environment causes behavior, true; but behavior causes environment as well.”3 This is labeled as Reciprocal Determinism: “the world...
...One of the central tenants of Albert Bandura’sSocial Learning Theory, which is also called SocialCognitiveTheory, is that “aggression in children is influenced by the reinforcement of family members, the media, and the environment” (Bandura, 1975, pp. 206-208). Evans (1989) suggested that the basis for Bandura’stheories came from work completed by researchers Miller and Dollard (1941) who suggested that human development is actively influenced by “response consequences” (Evans, 1989, p. 4), but regardless of the impetus for Bandura’s work, he is most known for his work regarding aggression in children. This paper will focus on why the principles of Bandura’sSocial Learning Theory will benefit leaders in school environments as they address behavioral problems from a human development perspective
One of the most famous experiments Bandura is credited with is the Bobo doll experiment. This experiment examines Bandura’stheory that aggression has three aspects—how the aggression develops, what provokes the behavior and what elements determine that an individual would resort to aggressive behavior in a similar situation in the future. While conducting this experiment, Bandura had a group of children watch a video where an actress is attacking a plastic clown. The aggressive...
In this paper it will show that socialcognitivetheory is my main focus from a wide range of theories outlined in the course syllabus. The theory was proposed by Miller and Dollard in 1941. The theory was later expanding by Walters and Bandura with the principles in observational learning as well as vicarious reinforcement. Bandura also provided the concept of self efficacy in 1977, where he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning. Some of the areas that the theory covers include health communication. To start with the theory deals with cognitive and emotional aspects and aspects related to behavior of understanding behavioral change (Glanz, Rimer, & Lewis, 2002). To add on this the concepts of socialcognitivetheory provide ways for new behavioral research in health education. Finally the theory welcomes new ideas as far as psychology is concerned.
Core assumptions and statements
The socialcognitivetheory explains the way...
...COGNITIVE LEARNING THEORYCOGNITIVE LEARNING:
Cognitive learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge and skill by mental or cognitive processes, the procedures we have for manipulating information 'in our heads'. Cognitive processes include creating mental representations of physical objects and events, and other forms of information processing.
But what does it mean?
To most people probably very little. Essentially what 'cognition' means is 'to know', gaining knowledge through thought or perception.
Cognitive learning is about enabling people to learn by using their reason, intuition and perception. This technique is often used to change peoples' behaviour. But people's behaviour is influenced by many factors such as culture, upbringing, education and motivation. Therefore cognitive learning involves understanding how these factors influence behaviour and then using this information to develop learning programmes.
So it is far more subtle than just telling people what you want them to do differently it involves presenting the message in such a way that it allows people to work out the answer themselves. This can be achieved a number of ways
•Response consequences - should you reward for demonstrating the right behaviour or punish for demonstrating the wrong behaviour? Which approach will achieve the required outcomes? In reality there needs to...
...Cognitive, Social and Language Development
Psy 101 Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Wendy Conaway
May 14, 2010
This paper will discuss cognitive, social and language development. Four articles will be summarized, and personal experiences will be discussed. The approach to the study of cognitive development by observation and analyzing mental processes in perceiving and handling information is known as information processing theory. (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2008) This theory is known as the framework that underlies a wide range of theories and research, and helps researchers determine the estimation of an infant’s later intelligence from the efficiency of their sensory perceptions and processing. (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2008) Psychologists use this approach to test, diagnose and treat learning problems. (R.M. Thomas, 1996; Williams, 2001) Parents and teachers are able to use this approach to help children learn; making them more aware of their mental processes and ways to enhance them. (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2008) Some information processing theorists use the comparison of the brain to computers because sensory impressions go in and behavior comes out. (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2008) Cognition is the process involved in thinking and mental activity, such as attention, memory and problem solving. There are many theories of...
...Social Control Theory vs. Social Learning Theory
Social control theory and social learning theory are two theories that suggest why deviant behavior is chosen to be acted upon by some individuals and not others. Both take a different stance on the issue. Social control theory suggests people’s behavior is based on their bonds to society, if they have strong bonds to society they conform and if not they have a tendency to act out or become involved in criminal or deviant behavior. Social learning theory suggest that through vicarious learning people learn from observing others and based on what the observe make the choice of whether to copy those actions to obtain desired results or chose not to if the results they see are undesirable. The explanations of both theories are presented and a conclusion of why social learning theory is more acceptable on explaining the reasons people engage in delinquent behavior is presented.
Social control theory proposes that through socialization and social learning individuals form attachments to others and develop self control as they do not want to disappoint others (Hirschi & Gottfredson, 1993). Social control...