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Balanced scorecards in managing higher education institutions: an Indian perspective Venkatesh Umashankar and Kirti Dutta
Institute for International Management and Technology, Haryana, India Abstract
Purpose – The paper aims to look at the balanced scorecard (BSC) concept and discuss in what way it should be applied to higher education programs/institutions in the Indian context. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on extant literature on the balanced scorecard concept per se, as well as applications of BSC in higher education as reported by other researchers. Findings – The BSC approach offers an institution the opportunity to formulate a cascade of measures to translate the mission of knowledge creation, sharing and utilization into a comprehensive, coherent, communicable and mobilizing framework – for external stakeholders and for one another. Research limitations/implications – In the absence of any speciﬁc Indian case study, the possible impact could only be conjectured or deduced. Practical implications – A useful model is proposed that can be adapted with appropriate modiﬁcations to the management of tertiary institutions of education in India, whether it be a university, afﬁliate college, autonomous institution or private educational institution. Originality/value – In the absence of evidence of the application of BSC to the educational institutional domain in India, the current paper may be a starting-point for a debate and possible strategies to implement BSC methodology in this area. Keywords Balanced scorecard, Strategic management, Higher education Paper type Conceptual paper
International Journal of Educational Management Vol. 21 No. 1, 2007 pp. 54-67 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0951-354X DOI 10.1108/09513540710716821
Introduction Organizational failure can usually be traced to deﬁcient strategic planning, poor organization structure, recruitment and retention of staff, ineffective or nonexistent internal control, and a lack of communication and feedback. On a more operational level, poor budgeting and inattention to cash-ﬂows are also often the cause of organizational failure. Educational institutions of higher learning are no different, it is just that in the Indian context, traditionally these institutions have been controlled by the government and hence at times strategic management and its derivative tenets are not so visible in the initiation and operation of such institutions. Heimerdinger (2002) indicates a need for training perceived by non-proﬁt managers that manifests the traditional concerns of human services professionals who ﬁnd themselves promoted into managerial positions without the beneﬁt of traditional formal training in management – referring to those tasks usually deﬁned by such activities as planning, organizing, motivating and controlling and feedback. Subtending all of these is the need for leadership. If we juxtapose the above comment with the fact that educational institutions of higher learning in India, traditionally have been “administered” (managed) in a way in which academic staff
have been given apex positions in the administrative hierarchy, it does highlight this need for developing managerial capacity. Universities world-over are facing the challenge of being centres of excellence for teaching as well as research. On one hand universities are increasingly being required to teach ever increasing number of students in increasing numbers of specialisations and disciplines, and on the other they are being asked to pay more attention to quality of teaching and educational programs (Smeby, 2003). This again indicates at the requirement to re-look at the ways institutions of higher learning are to be managed. The current paper looks at focusing attention on one of the contemporary tools of management namely, the balanced...
Keller School of Management
BSOP-588 Managing Quality
Professor Robert Lee
February 8, 2014
Performance management systems are often designed to enable organizations to plan, measure and control their performance, so that decisions, resources and activities can be better aligned with business strategies to achieve desired results and create shareholder value. TheBalancedScorecard is a performance tool using financial and nonfinancial measures. It provides an organization with ways to develop and evaluate strategic objectives and goals. For the past two decades, the BalancedScorecard (BSC) has been proposed as an integrated framework for the implementation of financial and nonfinancial performance measures that helps organizations align their initiatives with the organization's strategy (Kaplan & Norton, 1992).
The United States Postal Service delivers more mail to more addresses in a larger geographical area than any other post in the world. The Postal Service delivers to more than152 million homes, businesses and Post Office boxes in every state, city, town and borough in this country. Everyone living in the United States and its territories has access to postal products and services and pays the same postage regardless of their location (USPS, 2014). This paper will examine the effectiveness...
...I. What is BalancedScorecard (BSC)?
a. Its purpose is to implement balanced management system to strategically align business practice and goals to gain competitive advantage.
II. Why is it important?
b. It more effectively positions HR to assume a role at the executive table as a source of collected data and analytics, and manager of tangible and intangible assets—synergy of business outcomes that are difficult to imitate, (Fottler, 2006).
c. It also supports talentship (Boudreau, 2002), intellectual capital (Wu, 2005) and human capital as a strategic asset, and not as a financial cost, (Becker, 2001).
d. It is versatile (although there can be challenges) for both large and small and medium enterprises (SME) companies, (Rompho, 2011) and public and private organizations.
e. It has the potential and flexibility to help organizations in today’s ever-changing markets to deal with volatile changes and transformations. It can be simplified for smaller businesses, (Anonymous, 2006).
III. What should we understand about BSC?
f. It can only be successfully implemented through accurate identification of company mission, vision and strategic objectives. Any shortcuts or re-labeling of existing practices only leads to inaccurate reporting, unhelpful data and wasted staff effort, (Ward, 2005). Environments where internal processes and markets are changing constantly can make this part of the...
...Learning Team Assignment: BalancedScorecard Case Paper
o Read and analyze Case 3, The Coors Case BalancedScorecard, at the Institute of Management Accountants Web Link located in Week Three's learning materials. In your Learning Team, answer the six questions at the end of the case:
o Link the Coors vision statement to Coors's key business strategies or six planks. Are there any gaps?
o Link the Coors Operation and Technology (O&T) department vision statement to the O&T strategies or supply chain guiding principles. Are there any gaps?
o Provide possible explanations for the performance gaps identified by Coors benchmarking analysis.
o Answer the frequently asked question (FAQs) already raised by employees about the Coors BSC project.
o Considering the prior gap and benchmarking analyses, design specific performance measures with benchmarked targets, where feasible, and reporting frequency to create an operational and acceptable BSC for Coors.
o Perform an economic value-added (EVA) analysis to assess its potential as a BSC financial performance measure for Coors.
o Write a paper in which you incorporate your findings from the case questions and address the following:
o What were the company's objectives in implementing the BalancedScorecard? What problems was the company trying to address?
o Describe the implementation plan and process. How was implementation...
Running head: General Dynamics BalancedScorecard
General Dynamics BalancedScorecard
“General Dynamics is one of the market leaders in business aviation, combat vehicles, weapon systems and munitions; ship building and marine systems; and mission-critical information systems and technology (Corporate Overview, 2012).” In 2012, General Dynamic’s revenue has expanded from $4 billion to over $32 billion and the workforce has steadily increased from 29,000 to over 95,000 employees. Currently General Dynamics consist of the following four divisions Aerospace, Combat systems, Information Systems and Technology, and Marine Systems.
This presentation provides insight to how I would build a balance scorecard and strategy map for General Dynamics. My research and findings clearly demonstrate how implementing the balance scorecard with several basic perspective of strategy will achieve a common goal:
1. Financial Perspective
2. Customer Perspective
3. Internal Process Perspective
4. Learning and Growth Perspective
These findings will help General Dynamics emphasize what is important about the need for a balancedscorecard. There are six strategic goals of a balancedscorecard that will assist General Dynamics:
1. Focus on the drivers of business
2. The cause and effect of stress
3. Unites the...
The following paper presents a balancedscorecard for the supply chain management in a hospital. Hospitals strive to operate efficiently while providing the best patient care. By managing the supply chain strategically, hospitals can save costs, provide better patient care, better serve the demands of professional staff and also maintain a sound relationship with its suppliers. According to my understanding, the main goal of the hospital that I previously worked was not profitability, but to provide good patient care. Still, certain measures can be taken to save costs without sacrificing on the quality of care that patients receive. The main strategy of hospital`s supply chain is to provide excellent service, meet time sensitive demands of hospital supplies and reduce the operating and purchasing costs of supply chain.
Figure: A Supply Chain BalancedScorecard Framework
Customer Perspective: The goal is to provide the best patient care by fulfilling staff`s requests for the medical supplies and filling the supply carts in various departments on a daily basis. This can be achieved by measuring the number of items replenished in the carts divided by the total number of items requested. The goal is to strive to be near the ratio 1:1, which would mean that all the items requested were fulfilled. More than one would...
...Overall Strategic Plan Structure
Key Result Area,
Measures and Scores.
The Three Key Grid Elements
Grid Name Usage
Objectives 1. Allocate and define how each Strategic Objectives apply
to every employee.
2. Create an Initial Framework for defining the Initiatives
1. Defines what activities occur to support every Objective.
2. Contain activity based financial budget data.
3. Allocate a date range to define a monthly grid.
1. Define the status of any month.
2. Maintain planned and actual accounting or numeric data.
3. Provide planned and actual totals as Initiatives grid cells.
Objective Grid: Primary Concept
The Strategic Objective must be applied to define each person’s
activities. Every employee has a responsibility to ensure that
each assigned Organizational Strategic Objective is successful.
Objective Grid: Secondary Concept
If you cannot measure what you are doing then you probably should not be
doing it. Associated with the responsibility are...
The BalancedScorecard (BSC) began as a concept for measuring whether the smaller-scale operational activities of a company are aligned with its larger-scale objectives in terms of vision and strategy. It was developed and first used at Analog Devices in 1987. By focusing not only on financial outcomes but also on the human issues, the BalancedScorecard helps provide a more comprehensive view of a business, which in turn helps organizations act in their best long-term interests. The strategic management system helps managers focus on performance metrics while balancing financial objectives with customer, process and employee perspectives. Measures are often indicators of future performance.
In 1993, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton began publicizing the BalancedScorecard through a series of journal articles. In 1996, they published the book The BalancedScorecard. Since the original concept was introduced, BalancedScorecards have become a fertile field of theory and research, and many practitioners have diverted from the original Kaplan & Norton articles. Kaplan & Norton themselves revisited BalancedScorecards with the benefit of a decade's experience since the original article.
The BalancedScorecard is a performance planning and measurement...
...Success of the BalancedScorecard
The change can be described as a success when the BSC is working well, this can occur when
certain goals and conditions are met. Those conditions will be described in this section. Once
a project aligned with goals and strategies of the organization is chosen, project members
selected, and proper communication of goals has been provided to the project team, it is
possible to develop a balancedscorecard to monitor the project (Devine et al., 2010).
According to Barglas et al. (2004) the most effective scorecards have six characteristics in
common: focus, balance, scope, audience, technology, and implementation. First, focus refers
to day-to-day tools to guide executive actions. Second, balance includes a mix of leading and
lagging indicators that are keyed to internal and external financial and operating metrics.
Third, scope is about providing a limited number of balanced metrics at the top. Fourth,
audience because scorecards are used for all employees. Fifth, technology is matched to the
need for timeliness in reporting and analysis. Sixth, implementation is important. Less than
20% that use scorecards have mature implementations that are creating value (Barglas et al.,
Research of De Geuser et al. (2009) demonstrates that the BSC contributes positively to
organizational performance. Their study provides...