Since the creation of man-devised weaponry, the issue of inhumane, illicit, and corrupt arms trade has perpetrated and littered the enterprise with a deluge of human rights violations. An unprecedented, though still imperfect, solution to mediate the atrocities and grossly negligent surveillance of arms trade was adopted on April 2, 2013 by the United Nations (UN) and officially deemed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Garnering widespread, global support, the ATT is the premier, international treaty aiming at regulating interstate transfers of conventional arms. Since it opened for signatories on June 3, 2013, the ATT has attained signatures from 116 states, an unexpected high percentage considering the capricious nature of arms usage worldwide. Though the ATT has made leaps and provided much-needed framework for responsibility and restraint in international transfers of arms, there is still much work that needs to be done, with only twelve states having ratified the treaty and illicit, unregulated arms trade a prevalent violator of civil rights and human life today. The ATT is unique and significant, as it is the first legally binding, international instrument created with the purpose of binding states to responsible and effective control over all types of international arms trade. After almost two decades of civil activism and advocacy, seeking a means of which to regulate the alarmingly massive and illegal sector of global arms transfers, and seven years after the UN General Assembly resolution 61/89, which sought “[a] legally binding instrument establishing common international standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional arms”, the UN General Assembly passed the ATT with a vote of 154-3-23 (Saferworld). Within the UN General Assembly, actual negotiations officially began at a month-long Diplomatic Conference (DipCon1) in July 2012. Though substantial progress was made during the initial conference, the...
...The ArmsTrade Treaty
The ArmsTrade Treaty is the result of an international consensus that there is a need for global arms regulation. This belief began to develop after the Cold War in response to consequences facing the international community from countries whom purchased arms unimpeded and used them towards aggressive and oppressive ends. TheArmsTrade treaty has been applauded as an initial framework to begin practical implementation of effective arms regulations through the context of international consensus in a way that will reduce egregious human rights violations and increase weapons accountability as well as regional stability. There are criticisms as to the future effectiveness of the treaty because the scope of the treaty covers arms sales, not other forms of arms transfer and because major arms exporters have abstained from participating in the treaty. These realities are staunch hurdles towards the future effectiveness of governing policies that may evolve from the treaty. Because the treaty has not reached the stage of ratification, an actual analysis of the impacts of this treaty have yet to be seen.
The origins of the international arms regulation and thus, the ArmsTrade...
...INTERNATIONAL BUISNESS OF SMALL ARMS
Virtually anything of value is offered for sale in today’s Global Marketplace, one of these international businesses is the sale of small arms. The illicit armstrade is an international business that has little laws and regulations. Not all of illicit armstrade is illegal since there is an enormous gray area between legal and illegal transactions. The world’s biggest countries are involved in the small armstrade with a revenue of billions of dollars a year. Does the sale of small arms fuel civil wars, contribute to crime rates and feed the arsenals of the worlds terrorist groups? In this essay I will describe what small arms are, how small arms may hinder development and rebuilding, the amount of civilians affected by small arms, the countries that partake in small armstrade, the markets, as well as illustrate the people and government that are trying to address the issue.
WHAT SMALL ARMS ARE
What exactly are small arms? Small arm weapons include, but are not limit to; handguns, pistols, sub-machine guns, mortars, landmines, grenades, light missiles and rocket launchers. Since small arms are relatively cheap, highly portable and easy to conceal, illicit trafficking...
November 5, 2013
A Farewell to Arms Essay: In Love and War
“In three words I can sum up everything I've learned about life: it goes on” (Robert Frost). In the young adult novel A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway, Frederic Henry, an architect who lives in Rome, falls in love with a British nurse, Catherine Barkely. Both Henry and Catherine find solace in each other during the war, which forms a relationship between them. Thus, the symbol of rain will prove the theme that love and war cannot coexist at the same time because it can become very deadly.
The symbol of rain conveys the theme that love cannot exist with love at the same time because it can be deadly. In the beginning of the novel, Henry gives a brief mention of the war describing the start of winter “[…] came […] permanent rain” and when the rain comes cholera comes too and “[…] seven thousand died of it” (Hemingway 4). In this passage, rain connects with death for the first time, but no emotional feeling connects to the fact that seven thousand men die. The rain is described here as permanent because it is inescapable and brings with it a disease that effortlessly destroys many soldiers. This sentence amazes the reader with a feeling of awe at the ease and swiftness with which the rain comes is very intimidating. The rain destroys the soldiers because they fight a war that does not seem to end anytime soon. Henry tells the readers “branches were bare and the trunks black...
...Comp 2000: Advanced College Writing
23 June 2011
The United States of America and the Arms Industry:
How the United States of America takes part in the arms industry in different ways, both nationally and internationally.
With the national debt above $14 trillion, how much of that is actually spent on our nation’s defense and war efforts? According to national debt clock the United States is using approximately 699 1/2 billion dollars (United States National Debt Clock) to militarily defend itself. As we take a front row seat in different and sometimes contradictory ways, within the arms industry, both nationally and internationally. There are many ways our country takes part in the worldwide industry of arms dealing. For the purpose of this paper we will take a look at the more basic and common ways in which this happens. Ever since we declared our independence from the British in 1776 the general concept seems to have been, he who carries the big stick makes the rules, a concept that has been hard to argue with, especially with all the statistical numbers that seem to support this theory. First, let’s take a look at the United States defense budget and how it compares to the rest of the world. How much do we truly set aside for defense? Where do we rank in the world as far as spending? What percentage of the world wide spending pie do we make up? Second, we look at the actual budget to get an idea of...
15 September 2012
Hernandez Coat of Arms
What are your personal core values? Have you ever wondered whether or not your ancestors held these same values? One of the ways to find out about this is to look at your family’s coat of arms. Coats of arms are part of heraldry which has been defined as the art of blazoning, assigning, and marshalling a coat of arms (fleurdelis.com). Coats of arms were initially used by knights as a way of identifying themselves and setting themselves apart from enemies (archives.com). These coats of arms became a mark of noble status, because knights participated in tournaments, and participation in these tournaments were important to social status. However, over time coats of arms were a way of showing a families valued traits.
The first sighting of the surname Hernandez was found in Castile, an important Christian kingdom of medieval Spain. The name Hernandez, when broken down means the sons of Hernan. These sons of Hernan were three brothers, knights, who served for the king of Spain. They as knights had a coat of arms and the Hernandez coat of arms is half red, and half blue. The red half of the shield signifies a warrior, and/or military strength. While the blue half stands for truth and loyalty. The blue half has three fleurs-de-lis on it, which exemplify purity and light. And the red half has three...
...November 7, 2010
A Farewell to Arms Narrative
(Page 231-232) “Hard as the floor of the car to lie and not thinking only feeling, having been away too long, the clothes wet and floor moving only a little each time and lonesome inside and alone with wet clothing and a hard floor for a wife. Doctors did things to you and then it was not your body anymore. The head was mine, but not to use, not to think with, only to remember and not too much remember.” Frederic Henry is feeling alone and is justifying himself. Frederic is doubting his actions on the train ride and contemplating his future with Catherine. Hemingway makes a dramatic pronoun switch by referring to himself in the second person pronoun of “you”. “… but you loved some one else whom now you know was not even to pretended there; you seeing now clear and coldly—not so coldly as clearly and emptily.” Frederic Henry is referring to himself in the second person forcing the reader to peer inside his head. Through monologue narrative techniques, figurative language and tone, Hemingway indicates that Frederic Henry is a man reaching a point of no return.
Hemingway employs a stream of consciousness writing style and reporting technique in this chapter. In the beginning of this chapter, Hemingway uses reporting to describe what Henry is doing. He states that Henry is hungry, wet and cold. Henry is in the flat-car and starts to think about Valentini’s knee. This thought sets Henry...
...Man’s Self-Infliction of Inhumanity in A Farewell to Arms
War is the epitome of mankind’s inhumanity. It is in man’s nature to fuel the want and propensity toward war. Wars destroy nations and stability. Soldiers who fight in wars either come back in pieces or do not come back at all. The ones lucky enough to return home have changed drastically in what they feel and how they think. The horrors of war will forever haunt them. In his classic novel, A Farewell toArms, Ernest Hemingway examines the effect of war on man’s ideals and morals amid the World War I battleground of Northern Italy.
Ernest Hemingway, born in Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899, was well nurtured by his parents as a young boy; however, he was never really adequately happy about his life. Hemingway always wanted to escape his life. His first big shot at running away from home came during World War I. Hemingway, at first, tried to join the American Army, but the Army declined him as a result of his poor health and eyesight. He later joined the Red Cross in 1918 as a volunteer ambulance diver. He worked for the Red Cross during World War I and was badly injured by shrapnel from mortar fire when he was at a post in Fossalta di Plave in Italy. As a result of his campaign in World War I warfare, Hemingway was able to experience first-hand the true nature of war and how it affected the soldiers involved. Shortly after being sent back home to America, he became a foreign...
...: George Bernard Shaw, “Arms and the Man: A Pleasant Play.” Introduction by Rodelle Wientraub. Edited by Dan H. Laurence. Penguin Books, 2006.
Text Summary of Act One
The scene is set in Bulgaria in November of 1885, during the Serbo-Bulgarian war. In a small town near the Dragoman Pass, a young lady loiters on the balcony off her bedchamber, looking out at the romantic night in the Balkan Mountains. Raina Petkoff is dressed in a nightgown but covered by a costly fur mantle. Her mother, Catherine Petkoff, interrupts her, telling her of the recent nearby battle at Slivnitza. The Bulgarians won, and it was her own fiancé, Sergius Saranoff, who was the hero! They embrace with delight as Catherine tells the details. There was a cavalry charge, and Sergius defied his own Russian commanders, scattering the Serbs and their Austrian officers by surprise.
Raina says that it only proves their ideas were right. The ideas of heroism and patriotism that she has doubted really do exist! She admits that as she buckled on her hero’s sword she wondered if the ideals were only in books and poems. Now she knows that Sergius is as brave as he looks.
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