Are Human Rights Universal?
The doctrine of human rights is one of the main topics that were created to protect every single human regardless of race, gender, sex, nationality, sexual orientation and other differences. It based on human dignity and that no one can take this away from another human being. It is that every ‘man’ has the inalienable rights for equality, but is this true? Are human right universal? Whether human rights are universal has been greatly debated for decades. There have been individuals and even countries that oppose the idea that human rights are for everybody. This argument shall be investigated in this essay, by: exploring definitions and history on human rights, debating on whether it is universal while providing examples and background information while supporting my hypothesis that human rights should be based on particular cultural values and finally drawing a conclusion.. A general definition of human rights are that they are rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled to, simply because there human. It is the idea that ‘all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.’ The thought that human rights are universal emerges from the philosophical view that human rights are linked to the conservation of human dignity- that respect for individual dignity is needed regardless of the circumstance, leading to the notion that human rights are universal. The earliest form of human rights can be traced back to European history- the French Declaration on the Rights of Man and of Citizen which says that men are born free and equal in rights. The Declaration of Human Rights was drafted in 1948 to recognise the rights of humans. The document was created to serve as a base of freedom, justice and peace in the world. However, this is debated which I will go into more detail later on. It had the inspiration to promote friendly relations between nations and it is emphasised that all nations should cooperate. Though, this can be said to be naive as to go as far to declare that all countries abide by the Declaration and that it is universal is mistaken. What does it mean to be universal? The concept believes that human rights belong to all human being and that it is fundamental and essential to every type of society. Those who disagree that human rights are universal believe that human rights are based on your culture, it has to be understood that a right for one group maybe outright intolerable to members of another group. Human rights are being viewed as being too ‘Western’ and representing specific cultural norms and belief system of some cultures and societies rather than all. This is the cultural relativist argument, the belief that human rights cannot be applied to non-Western nations. The belief has been endorsed by many political leaders, Singapore’s former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew suggested that the ‘Western concepts of democracy and human rights will not work in Asia, by explaining that the West is too individualistic compared to family-orientated Asia. ‘What Asians value may not necessarily be what Americans or Europeans value? Westerners value the freedoms and liberties of the individual. As an Asian of Chinese cultural background, my values are for a government which is honest, effective and efficient.’ Anwar Ibrahim, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia said that ‘others argue that freedom and democracy, while suitable in some parts of the world are by no means universal goods. They say that other nations ought not to adopt the ways of freedom and democracy without due regard to their own political, cultural, and social traditions.’ Highlighting the debate that human rights are too individualistic and can only be applied in the West. This view of Cultural Relativism have been gaining alot momentum, most nations are firmly opposed to Western human rights....
...The concept of UniversalHumanRights is a fairly new conception in human history. Rights are not the same thing as social or cultural norms, which can be used to oppress minority interest and be fundamentally unfair to individuals. The beginnings of this concept can be traced back to the Enlightenment Era of the mid 17th through the 18th century. The formal international consensus of this idea did not take effect until after World War II, when the United Nations (U.N.) adapted the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) on December 10, 1948 establishing an international standard of humanrights. Although the majority of member nations of the U.N. agreed on this resolution, there where nations that argued against it. Thus the question still persist today, Are humanrightsuniversal? I believe that they are.
Humans use morals and ethics to determine “right” from “wrong” on an individual as well as a cultural basis. An individual belief of right and wrong is derived from life long experiences; and influenced by culture, religion, parents, schools, relationships, etc. Cultural beliefs of right and wrong are a consensus of those beliefs in a nation or region, which can, and do vary widely between different cultures....
...identify rights that are truly truly universal?
It is possible that there is no such thing as rights that are Universal.
Rights usually have a cultural context. Philosophers have thought, spoken and written about humanrights for thousands of years, but it is only in comparative recent years that these rights have been codified. Since the Second World War the major document embodying aspirations on humanrights is the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. The murder of millions of civilians by the Germans was the obvious motivation for the Universal Declaration of HumanRights. However the Declaration went much further than expressing a right to life, liberty and property, as set out, for instance, by the seventeenth century philosopher, John Locke. The Universal Declaration of HumanRights sets out 30 articles containing humanrights. This was a much more ambitious attempt at codifying rights than Locke who confined himself to life liberty and property.
Locke, for his inalienable rights, relied on two factors, the existence of god and a concept of a social contract. He relied on god to bestow what he termed natural...
What are HumanRights
What are humanrights?
Humanrights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our humanrights without discrimination. T hese rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universalhumanrights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International humanrights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect humanrights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups.
Universal and inalienable
T he principle of universality of humanrights is the cornerstone of international humanrights law. T his principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on HumanRights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international humanrights conventions,...
...Youth for HumanRights
What is youth for humanrights?
The purpose of YHRI is to teach youth about humanrights, specifically the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights, and inspire them to become advocates for tolerance and peace.
What are humanrights?
Every person is entitled to certain fundamentalrights, simply by the fact of being human. They are “rights” because they are things you are allowed to be, to do or to have. These rights are there for your protection against people who might want to harm or hurt you. They are also there to help us get along with each other and live in peace.
A Brief History of HumanRights
The Cyrus Cylinder:
In 539 B.C., the armies of Cyrus the Great, the first king of ancient Persia, conquered the city of Babylon. But it was his next actions that marked a major advance for Man. He freed the slaves, declared that all people had the right to choose their own religion, and established racial equality.
The Spread of HumanRights:
From Babylon, the idea of humanrights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. There the concept of “natural law” arose, in observation...
...principles of the United Nations Universal Declaration of HumanRights relates to the Saint Leo Universities core value of community in a lot of different ways.
Part of Saint Leo’ mission statement is to create a student-centered environment in which love of learning is of prime importance. Members of the community are expected to examine and express their own values, listen respectfully to and respond to the opinions of others, serve the community in which they live, welcome others into their lives, and care for all of God's creations.
Whereas a part of the United Nations statement is that all human beings are born with equal and inalienable rights and fundamental freedoms. The United Nations is committed to upholding, promoting and protecting the humanrights of every individual. This commitment stems from the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the faith of the peoples of the world in fundamental humanrights and in the dignity and worth of the human person. It also states that the United nations has stated in clear and simple terms the rights which belong equally to every person. These rights belong to you. They are your rights. Familiarize yourself with them.
Saint Leo has 6 core values that we all are to strive to uphold. They are Excellence, Community, Respect,...
... HumanRights in Global Perspective
Are there UniversalHumanRights?
Table of Contents
Introduction (History of HumanRights)……………..........................……………………….1
First Paragraph (The importance of UniversalHumanRights)…………………………..1-2
Second Paragraph (The documents):…………………………...…………………………..2-3
1. Magna Carta 1215 (The first document of HumanRights)…….…….……..…2
2. Declaration of Independence of America (1776)………………….…………2-3
3. Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)………………..……………..3
Third Paragraph (Critics of UniversalHumanRights)……………………………..……..3-5
1. Edmund Burke (English Philosopher)…………………………………………3-4
2. Jeremy Bentham (Founder of Utilitarianism)………………………………...…..4
3. H.L.A Hart (English Philosopher)……………………………………………......4
Other Critiques of UniversalHumanRights (Cultural Relativism & Feminism)……….4-5
Work Cited Page……………………………………………………………………………….7
The world tired from the World War I and II and its catastrophic consequences wanted to do something...
SSC 102 – Global Perspective
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights
“THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMANRIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.”
The above statement was pulled directly from the declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948 in Paris, France. The declaration was created due to the disadvantages learned during World War II. It was the first deposition created concerning the rights of all human beings across the globe. The declaration is comprised of 30 articles which “elaborate in subsequent international treaties, regional humanrights instruments, national constitutions and laws.”...
...States does not follow this document, which means that the United States does not respect; and I can think of other nations and peoples who do not follow the declaration as well, right off the top of my head. If the answer to those questions id yes, then I do believe that every nation, including the United States should have to follow it. However, that does not seem to be the case. So therefore, I do not think that any nation should scrutinize or punish another nation for not following the document if that nation does not as well. Furthermore, I think that if all, or most nations, do not follow the Universal Declaration of HumanRights then it was a pretty big waste of time and energy making it and since not respected it should become null and void, and just another piece of failed history.
First I am going to write about the Declaration in general; it’s history and what it consists of. The declaration was created and adopted in 1948. It arouse from the Second World War where people of the Jewish community were subject to very intense and tragic discrimination. The United Nations General Assembly had created it. The declaration includes thirty articles that are supposed to protect and identify the rights and liberties of each and every human life on this planet. On December 10, 1948 the Universal Declaration had been voted on. Forty eight nations voted in favor of it and...