What is evolutionary psychology?
In the three and a half centuries since William Harvey proved that the purpose of the heart is to pump blood, physiologists have revealed the functional organization of the body in blinding detail. Their discoveries demonstrate beyond question that the structure of the body serves survival and reproduction. Further, there is near unanimity among biologists that this functional structure is a product of natural selection. In our century, psychologists have developed powerful techniques that conclusively demonstrate that cognition, too, has structure. Evolutionary psychologists are betting that cognitive structure, like physiological structure, has been designed by natural selection to serve survival and reproduction. Evolutionary psychology focuses on the evolved properties of nervous systems, especially those of humans. Because virtually all tissue in living organisms is functionally organized, and because this organization is the product of evolution by natural selection, a major presumption of evolutionary psychology is that the brain, too, is functionally organized, and best understood in evolutionary perspective. It is clear that the body is composed of a very large number of parts, and that each part is highly specialized to perform a specific function in service of the survival and reproduction of the organism. Using the body as a model for the brain, it is a fair guess that the brain, too, is composed of one or more functional parts, each of which is also specialized to facilitate the survival and reproduction of the organism (we'll get to genes in a bit). Thus, according to evolutionary psychology, neural tissue is no different from any other tissue: it is functionally organized to serve survival and reproduction. This is the foundational assumption of evolutionary psychology. Because vision, hearing, smell, pain, and motor control are indisputable functions of the nervous system that clearly have utility for survival...
...Discipline of Psychology
There are three important concepts to remember when defining psychology: science, behavior and mental processes. When defining psychology for a friend I would first simply just give him/her the standard book definition, which is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. But, psychology can be defined in many different ways. Another definition of psychology could be the scientific study of the human mind and its functions such as those affecting behavior.
The discipline of psychology is both an applied and academic discipline dedicated to the scientific study of the behavior and the mind of organisms. Academic psychology is the foundational science that supports the research conducted in appliedpsychology and appliedpsychology uses psychological principles and empirical research methods to solve practical problems. Psychologists attempt to understand individual and social behaviors by exploring the physiological, external, and the neurobiological processes that influence human behavior.
Practitioners of psychology use empirical methods which is just verifying by observation and experience rather than theory or pure logic. They use this method find relationships between psychosocial concepts like perception, cognition, emotion, and...
...Career Opportunities in Psychology
A graduate degree in psychology can open the door to a much wider range of career opportunities. Because of the huge range of degree options and specialty areas, picking the one that right for you can feel overwhelming. Spending some time researching different career paths can help you decide which career path is suited to your needs, interests, and educational background.
Mental Health and Social Services
Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat individuals suffering from mental or emotional illnesses. Most individual's in this area hold a Ph.D. or Psy.D., but there are some openings for those with a master's degree.
Counselors have many of the same job duties as clinical psychologists, but tend to work more on helping individual's overcome issues affecting their daily life rather than psychiatric illness. Those employed in this area generally have a master's or doctorate degree in psychology, counseling, or education.
Social workers often diagnose and treat mental illness or work for social welfare agencies. Those with an undergraduate degree in psychology may elect to obtain a master's degree in social work. Master's-level social work graduates can become licensed to practice in all 50 states.
Educational and School Settings
School counselors work with children who are having difficulty...
...under the assumption that an in-depth understanding of single cases will allow for general conclusions about other related cases. Case studies have also been used to investigate the circumstances of the life of important figures in history. Quite often, multiple case studies on similar cases are combined to draw inferences about these issues. Researchers must be careful though because case studies like correlational ones, cannot lead to conclusions regarding causality. Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers used numerous case studies to draw their conclusions about psychology. The danger of assessing the outcome of case studies is that the individual being studied may be atypical of the larger population. Researchers will try to ensure that their studies are geralnalizable, or applicable to similar circumstances because of the predictable outcomes of repeated tests. Two important research methods associated with developmental psychology are cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
Two important features of studies are the conceptual definition and the operational definition. Whereas the conceptual definition is the theory or issues being studied, the operational definition is how that theory or issue will be directly observed or measured in the study. For example, in a study on the effects of teenage substance abuse, “the way in which taking drugs affects teenager’s behavior” is the conceptual definition, while the number of recorded days the...
Forensic psychology is typically the intersection of psychology and the law, but forensic psychologists can perform many roles so this definition can vary. The field of psychology is booming due to movies and television shows that depict protagonists using psychology to solve the most heinous crimes and are able to predict the criminals’ next move. These dramatizations glorify this career and in reality, these forensic psychologists practice the science of psychology within the realm of criminal justice and civil courts.
Unlike clinical psychologists who are concerned with the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental disorders, the forensic psychologist will be employed for a specific job function and will be of a short duration (Cherry, N.D.). Majority of the individuals who come in contact with these professionals are court ordered to do so and this makes the job of the forensic psychologist quite tough because of the participants’ unwillingness to co-operate.
During criminal trials forensic psychologist will assist law enforcement professionals in many aspects including the trial phase to remove human error from juries, witnesses, lawyers and judges. The court system is filled with witnesses who have their personal biases which could be detrimental to a criminal case. It is also known that witness testimony is highly unreliable and the American Psychological...
The Career we chose is Forensic Psychology, also known as criminal psychology. You’ve probably heard of this particular career from books, films and TV shows. Crime is often a major problem in many areas, particularly densely populated areas. As much as we may wish for peaceful, crime-free lives, this is most likely not going to happen anytime soon. Punishing criminals or preventing them from committing crimes is the first step to achieving that goal, thats where forensic psychologists step in. A forensic psychologist is a professional that studies the mental state of an individual who has committed a criminal offence. This process involves studying and observing the criminal's mind for intentions, thoughts and abnormal behaviour. In addition to studying the basic actions involved in criminal behaviour, a criminal psychologist tries to dig deep into a person’s subconscious to figure out what caused him to commit the crime in the first place. Once the evaluation is complete, the psychologist is often asked to provide expert testimony about the defendant in court. This gives the jury insight into the mind of the accused. Not all criminal psychology takes place in a court setting. Many times, a criminal psychologist is called upon to work closely with law enforcement agencies or the FBI to profile murderers, sexual predators, and other criminals. Forensic psychologists may also work in secure forensic units in hospitals,...
...What is Organizational Psychology
Dr. D’Marie Hanson
May 06, 2013
What is Organizational Psychology?
Defining Organizational Psychology is comprised of various elements such as the form in which it has evolved, comparisons of other related disciplines, and the way in the role of research and statistics in the field of organizationalpsychology has progressed and impacts employees and employers in the work place environment. The definition of Psychology is outlined by the comprehensive treatment in relation to the science and practice of organizational psychology. The evolution of the field of psychology is comprised of applications, methods, and principals of psychology in the working environment. The comparison of organizational Psychology and contrasting of personality and cognitive psychology are essential to the understanding of the effect of motives as well as understanding organizational structure. Analyzing the role of research and statistics in the field of organizational psychology gives a more defined approach to the qualitative and quantitative research in organizational structure in relation to the dynamics of employees.
...Industrial/Organizational Psychology Worksheet
The purpose of this assignment is to examine the fundamental concepts of the field of industrial/organizational psychology. Using the textbook, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, answer the following questions. Your responses to each question will vary but overall should be 700- to 1,050-words in length.
1. Describe the evolution of the field of industrial/organizationalpsychology.
Well in the early years two professors Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott were credited for laying the foundation work in the field of Industrial/Organizational Psychology (I/O). Both of these two gentlemen work in universities and were experimental psychologist themselves; they were interested in how employees were selected and the effects of new psychological tests that were administered. According to Spector (2008), I/O psychology itself owes its early genetic history from the 1800’s to Hugo Munsterberg and Walter Dill Scott they were both very influential in the field. Scientific management was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, who’s focus was on managing the production workers. It was Lillian Gilbreth and Frank that evaluated ways to improve performance efficiency issues, by developing a more efficient way for the employees do their work. It was their work that laid the foundation in design technology (Spector, 2008)....
...What do we mean by “Occupational Psychology”?
“It is the study concerned with the performance of people at work in training, how organisations function and how individuals and small groups behave at work. The aim of this area of psychology is to increase the effectiveness of the organisation, and to improve the job satisfaction of the individual by understanding their life style and their work. The speciality is broader in scope and less formalised than most other areas of psychology, and it touches on the diverse fields including ergonomics, personnel management, and time management. The Civil Service is one of the largest single employers of occupational psychologists: the prison service, the Home Office, the Employment Department Group (including the Employment Service), the Ministry of Defence, and the Civil Service Commission all employ occupational psychologists.”
What do Occupational Psychologists do?
Occupational psychologists advise companies on improving training, job satisfaction and productivity. They specialise in industrial relations, vocational guidance and counselling, selection and recruitment, organisational structure, worker productivity, job satisfaction, consumer behaviour, personnel training and development and the interaction between humans and machines.
In India, the name by which occupational Psychology is known is “Industrial Psychology” or...