Biomedical Ethics PHIL 235 EC
Sunday April 16th, 2006
"An abortion is the deliberate killing of a human being. As such, it is a murder. When you kill an unborn child, you rob it of its whole future life. Therefore it is never morally permissible and it should be illegal." Critically assess that claim.
Abortion is one of the most controversial and frequently debated topics in the world. The fact that the topic involves a persons right to choice, the ethical and moral question of what's right or wrong as well as what the definition of murder constitutes, it can easily be rejected or approved by a wide variety of people depending on their personal beliefs. Over the past few generations there have been much advancement in women's liberation and their right to choice. They have been granted the right to vote, females are much more accepted and now even welcomed into the workforce, they have the right to an education, and there are much more women in business and politics now than there ever was. Unfortunately, due to the many ethical issues that are brought up in the abortion debate, the fight for women's rights has not yet been settled. It has been suggested that abortion should not only be banned, but that the act of aborting a child should be considered as equally harmful as murder as it is suggested to be the deliberate killing of a human child. This paper will argue that allowing women the right to abortion is vital to their rights as a human being and their self determination. Furthermore it will explain that the ethical issues when dealing with abortion should not be solely focused on what is right or wrong but based on circumstance of the conception and whether or not the woman is prepared to bear a child. "Millions of women throughout the world live in conditions of abject deprivation of, and attacks against, their fundamental human rights for no other reason than that they are women." Our right to freedom is what we as a society have strived for over the centuries. Self determination is essentially allowing us the freedom and liberty to do what we want with our lives. It is essentially allowing a person the choice of whether to live or to die. As stated in the course notes in the debate of R. vs. Morgentaler, where section 251 of the criminal code was struck down, the principle issue raised by appeal was whether the abortion provision of the Criminal Code infringes the "right to life, liberty, and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice". Over the years women have made significant advancements in the fight for equality between the rights of men and women for which we fought so hard for. Yet now when a woman wants the right to determine what she can do with her body, she is criticized and attacked. In the principle of human rights women should have the right to ultimately decide how they choose to carry themselves and how they decide to live. Having a baby is a huge decision, and every consideration should be taken so that the right choice is made. Because only women have opportunity to carry a child the responsibility when it comes to abortion is most often placed on them. It is unfair to give a person such a huge responsibility without allowing her to decide whether or not she is ready for it. "A woman needs to desire very much to be a mother, so that she can be able to willingly tolerate the sacrifices, discomforts and risks that result from gestation and childbirth." Many people argue that a woman has a choice whether or not to keep the child, and if unwanted, she could carry it to term, and then give it up for adoption. It is often neglected however, how difficult a pregnancy can actually be and what one has to go through during the process. Quite often women are forced to sacrifice schooling, work and relationships during a pregnancy. This will depend on whether or not they can...
...Ethics on Abortion
There are many ethical issues that are argued over in society. One highly controversial issue however, is the problem faced with opposing beliefs on abortion. Abortion, literally meaning “the deliberate termination of human pregnancy,” is the issue commonly addressed by the liberals and the conservatives. Each side has its own philosophical theory on the situation. The liberal theory suggests that a women has the right to decide what happens with her body. The conservative outlook would be that an unborn baby, as a humanbeing, has separate rights from those of the mother. The arguments that are generally discussed involve that abortion is a personal choice, human life begins at conception, or that abortion can or can not be justified.
The first argument on the ethics of abortion is that abortion is a personal choice. This idea on abortion intends to imply that a fetus is not a human life. The life of the new embryo is not forced to be carried out because of the rights women possess. If new life is growing in a woman, then it should be her decision as it is regarding her own bodily autonomy. Abortion should be in the best concern of the woman pregnant because it does not go out and affect those around her. Also if the women in situations where...
...Abortion Should be Legalized
The issue of abortion is very controversial in today's society.
Although many people think it shouldn't be legalized, there are just as many who
think it should. Your opinion rests with you and possibly the values you were
brought up with. Whether you think women should have the right to abortion or
not, you can find support for either side.
Many individuals take the side of anti-abortion or pro-life which means
they don't think women should have the right to abort an unborn child. This is
the con side of legalizing abortion. Some of the pro-life members think that
the reasons women shouldn't be able to abort is that the mother is ending an
unborn child's life and if the mother is old enough to get pregnant they are old
enough to have the child. Some pro-life activists think that even if you have
to put the baby up for adoption later you should still have it. Although some
of the reasoning that pro-life activist use, might seem a little ridiculous at
times many of the activist aren't able to have children or are just trying to
defend a baby that can't defend it self. The pro's of pro-life are that the
baby gets a chance to live and experience life outside of the womb and maybe
someone who is unable to have children will get the chance to be a mother or
father if they...
...Abortion is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability.[note 1] An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. After viability, the relevant procedure is referred to as a "late termination of pregnancy".[note 1] Modern medicine utilizes medications and surgical procedures for induced abortion.
Abortion, when induced in the developed world in accordance with local law, is among the safest procedures in medicine. Uncomplicated abortions do not cause either long term psychological or physical problems. Unsafe abortions, however, result in approximately 47,000 maternal deaths and 5 million hospital admissions per year globally.
An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely. The number of abortion has stabilized in recent years, having previously spent decades declining as access to family planning education and contraceptive services increased. Forty percent of the world's women have access to legal induced abortions (within gestational limits).
Induced abortion has a...
...Abortion Consider Killing or Not?
I became interested in my topic of abortion because I wanted to learn more about how the government thinks about this whole concept. I think I was interested because if I wanted to research more about the effects of abortion then I would know the outcomes of it. When I became interested with this topic, I thought about my friend who had an abortion a couple years ago. This really got me wanting to learn more about how the abortion process works and how people’s views matter.
It is a fact that every abortion kills an innocent humanbeing. Abortion is process that shows that people are giving people an opportunity to stop pregnancy. It produces the humanbeings of showing infants. That’s why many women start on birth control to prevent from pregnancy. The definition of abortion is the termination of pregnancy before birth, resulting in the death of the fetus. However, some people abuse this right and use it as a form of birth control. In developed countries, abortion is legal whereas most developing countries do not encourage and permit abortion. This brings about the differences in safe and unsafe abortions. Abortion has a long history. In the past, it was done using crude tools such as...
...The issue regarding foetus as a humanbeing is controversial among scholars. Two schools of thought have been postulated, some in support of a foetus as a person by giving biblical references (Psalms 139 verse 13-15) hence they regard foetus as a humanbeing which falls under section 12 of the Zimbabwean constitution. A foetus has also been protected and included in article 6.1 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that it has the right to life and the right shall be protected by law and no one shall be arbitrarily be deprived of his life. However a band of scholars do not share this same argument of regarding a foetus as a humanbeing and it will not fall under section 12 of the constitution. They regard foetus as a potential person not an actual person and freedom of a humanbeing are given after birth. The debate remain hanging since section 12 of the constitution of Zimbabwe states that, no person shall be deprived of his life intentionally.
Foetus is regarded as a humanbeing therefore it has the right of life according to section 12 of the constitution. To kill a foetus is to murder a human person. According to Pope Pius IX1869, he argued that a foetus is a human person from conception and therefore abortion is murder. This claim is supported by the fact that all...
...Is abortion an act of murdering a humanbeing? Many will argue that abortion isn’t wrong on the basis that a fetus is not a humanbeing; however, many will argue that abortion is wrong because its taking a human life, no matter what stage of pregnancy it is in. In my paper I will argue that life begins at conception and arrive at the conclusion that abortion iskilling a humanbeing. As well as providing premises for my view, I will also provide an objection to my argument.
Whatever leads up to the statement, “He killed a human,” or, “she killed a human,” or, “the animal killed a human,” is an act of murder. There is no justification for a man to kill a humanbeing other than for self-defense. Any other act than that of self-defense that puts an end to human life, is an act of murder. To stretch that even further, murder is an unlawful, premeditated killing of one humanbeing by another. Now lets take this information and apply it to the killing of an unborn child.
First and foremost, we must establish when exactly human life begins in order to determine whether abortion, the killing of an unborn child, is murder. After...
...A Defense of Abortion Author(s): Judith Jarvis Thomson Source: Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Autumn, 1971), pp. 47-66 Published by: Blackwell Publishing Stable URL: http://jstor.org/stable/2265091 Accessed: 10/01/2010 00:54
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...Abortion as a Human Right
Throughout history, induced abortions have been a source of considerable debate and controversy. An individual's personal stance on the complex ethical, moral, and legal issues has a strong relationship with the given individual's value system. A person's position on abortion may be described as a combination of their personal beliefs on the morality of induced abortion and the ethical limit of the government's legitimate authority.
It is a woman's individual rights, right to her life, to her liberty, and to the pursuit of her happiness, that sanctions her right to have an abortion. A women's reproductive and sexual health and shape her reproductive choices. Reproductive rights are internationally recognized as critical both to advancing women's human rights and to promoting development. In recent years, governments from all over the world have acknowledged and pledged to advance reproductive rights to an unprecedented degree. Formal laws and policies are crucial indicators of government commitment to promoting reproductive rights. Each and every women has an absolute right to have control over her body, most often known as bodily rights.
A woman has a right to abortion if :
# The continuance of the pregnancy would involve risk to the life of the pregnant woman greater than if the pregnancy were terminated
# The termination is...