The Effects of U.S. Immigration on the Career
Trajectories of Native Workers, 1979–20041
University of Connecticut
While earlier work primarily examines the point-in-time effects of immigration on the earnings of native workers, this article focuses more broadly on the effects of immigration on native workers’ career trajectories. Cross-classiﬁed multilevel growth-curve models are applied to 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and U.S. Census Bureau data to demonstrate how people adjust to changing local labor market conditions throughout their careers. The key ﬁndings indicate that substitution and complementary effects depend on the stage of the worker’s career. At entry into the labor market, high levels of immigration have a positive effect on the career paths of young nativeborn adults. However, negative contemporaneous effects to natives’ earnings tend to offset positive point-of-entry effects, a ﬁnding that suggests job competition among natives is greater in areas of high immigrant population concentration. These results raise questions about whether foreign-born workers need to be in direct competition with natives for there to be substitution effects.
The effect of immigration on the socioeconomic attainments of native workers is a contentious issue that is often studied within the substitution/com1 Thanks to all the AJS reviewers for their comments and suggestions. I also thank Scott South, Nancy Denton, and Larry Raffalovich for their helpful comments on previous versions of this manuscript. This research was supported by a National Science Foundation grant ðSES-0926235Þ. Any errors are my responsibility. Direct correspondence to Jeremy Pais, Department of Sociology, University of Connecticut, 344 Mansﬁeld Road, Unit 2068, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. Email: [email protected]
American Journal of Sociology
plement framework ðe.g., Grossman 1982; Borjas 1983, 1987, 1999; Abowd and Freeman 1991; Card 1990, 2001, 2005; Butcher and Card 1991; Waldinger 1996, 1997; Smith and Edmonston 1997; Waldinger and Lichter 2003; Pedace 2006Þ. The substitution/complement framework maintains that increasing numbers of foreign-born workers can have negative or positive effects on the economic opportunities for natives. If increasing numbers of immigrants directly compete for the same jobs as native workers, but immigrants are recognized by the employers as more efﬁcient, suitable, and productive substitutes for natives, then the labor market outcomes for native workers are expected to be negative. On the other hand, if immigrants are creating additional jobs in the economy ðe.g., Light and Rosenstein 1995; Linton 2002; Ottaviano and Peri 2006Þ or taking jobs that are deemed undesirable by native workers ðPiore 1979Þ, then the labor market outcomes for native workers can be minimal or even positive. Under this condition, the immigrant workforce is said to complement the existing native workforce. Despite the seemingly straightforward empirical nature of the question posed by the substitution/complement framework, reaching a consensus among researchers has been difﬁcult. Recent immigration effects research tends to report a modest negative effect of immigrant population concentration on earnings for less educated native workers ðe.g., Reed and Danziger 2007Þ, but there exists evidence of complementary effects as well ðe.g., Muller 1993, p. 173; Enchautegui 1995; Reimers 1998, p. 142Þ. Many researchers recognize that the measurable economic impact of immigration is seemingly much smaller than what is anticipated by the dictates of supply and demand ðWaldinger and Lichter 2003; Card 2005; Reed and Danziger 2007Þ. Most recognize that the anticipated substitution effect of lower wages among native workers tends to be small and difﬁcult to conﬁrm...
...Exploration of a Journal Article in Sociology
Professor Bernard Nix Curry
Soc 100 – Introduction to Sociology
July 26, 2013
Exploration of a Journal Article in Sociology
Sports Sociology’s Still Untapped Potential
Sports sociology is a sub discipline of exercise science, which studies the relation between social interaction and their consequent human behavior. This involves examining sports as a part of man’s social and cultural life. Sports make up a persuasive context in social constructions based on a person’s resources, needs, interests and values. This aspect of sociology is concerned with the groups, patterns and socio-cultural structures involved with sport.
Sports play a big role in determining the kind of characters or professions that people end up adapting in life. This explains why governments spend resources and time in encouraging sporting activities. Subsidizing sport venues and sponsoring of activities such as Olympics are some of the ways in which sporting is encouraged in the society. (Eckstein, Moss, Delaney, 2010).
Sporting can be subdivided based on nature such as, amateur versus professional, top level versus mass, spectator versus active, and women versus men… Nonetheless, traditional breaking, reflexive or gender based paradigms result to the study of sport as a contested activity.
This means that sporting...
SOCIOLOGY UNIT 1 IP ASSIGNMENT
Millions of Americans tend to abuse the use of illegal drug, and regularly become reoccurring drug addicts. Drug addiction in the use of illegal drugs can exceed more than a billion dollars annually in the United States alone. Drug abuse can also affect health including mental disorders that are described to be a destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to important problems. Drug abuse is known to lead to problems involving withdrawal which occurs in heavy users of substances. Withdrawal is medically known to last days to weeks at times; depending on how long the individual has been involved in the drug usage. It is a painful process that affects the breathing and sleeping of addicts, most drug addicts tend to choose to continue doing drugs instead of going through the agenizing pains that come along the effects of the withdrawal process. Drug abuse may also influence crime-related activities such as stealing from loved ones to obtain money needed to buy drugs. Half of the people arrested for serious crimes have been under the effect of drugs including murder, robbery and assault. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reports that “approximately 70 percent of state prisoners and 57 percent of federal prisoners used drugs on a regular basis during incarceration.”
More than 14 percent of patients have confirmed...
...CHAPTER THREE: SOMEONE TO WATCH OVER ME
Venkatesh wondered how JT would act next time he saw him since he witnessed him beat up C-Note. C-Note was hospitalized, recuperated, and returned to Robert Taylor. JT later invited Venkatesh to his daughter’s birthday party. JT was very protective of his private life.
Venkatesh was affected by C-Notes beating. He wanted to ask JT about it but refrained, he also wanted to call the cops about the assault but he did nothing.
JT had a senior officer beat Brass, a squatter who refused to pay the fee, Prince beat him to a death almost. Venkatesh was uncomfortable seeing this. JT explained that it would be okay and that’s how things had to be around there to teach people lessons.
Venkatesh asks about the comparison of C-Note and Brass. He understood Brass didn’t pay the fee but didn’t understand why C-Note was beat for not doing anything. JT explains that he had told C-Note he couldn’t work there and by going back on his word he was challenging JT’s authority so he had to beat him.
JT was always worried that the other members wanted to dethrone him and claim his territory.
1990 was peak for crack industry in gangs, gangs were profiting large amounts of money.
Teenagers were getting into drug trade to make money, law enforcement and others were trying to get these kids in school and menial work away from drug trade. Kids were more willing to see drugs then do the menial work.
Prosecutors won the right to treats gangs as organized...
...of Cultural Diversity). First, many health care workers come to assumptions. Such as, when new comers come to the Unites States they become assimilated into the US culture (Phillips, The Challenge of Cultural Diversity). This is not true; each individual brings their culture and beliefs with them. Which means a patients health care beliefs do not fade away with assimilation. These assumptions and not understanding cultural diversity produces challenges to new comers. Some of these challenges are due to poorly educated health care workers. One challenge is stereotyping of health care workers. The way some one is dressed, skin color, ethnicity, and age workers judge patients on all of these (Hanslin, 2013, p110). This sets a tone on how a worker may act toward a patient (Hanslin, 2013, p110). The way that patient is treated is going to set the tone for the behavior the patient will act toward the care they receive. Another challenge is patients might not identify with there cultural backgrounds (Phillips, The Challenges of Cultural Diversity). For example, Middle Eastern that comes to America comes for freedom, but some woman chooses to still wear the scarf for religious purposes and others may not practice their religion. Also, mixed patients may look one ethnicity and believe another. This is where assumptions come in and health care workers need to be able to read the patient and ask questions to figure out their patient’s beliefs. Finally,...
City University College of Ajman
كلية المدينة الجامعية عجمان
Chadi Walid Azzam
26 November 2013
We live within a society and no matter how we try to separate our self from it we will fail because society make us what we are and determine our identity in the life. Therefore, any problem happen in it will definitely affect us one way or another. One of these problems is bullying.
Bullying definition is unwanted; aggressive behavior among school-aged children that involves using power and violence to satisfy a certain desire or obtain some benefits. There are three types of bullying, the first one is verbal: mean that Bullies do not have to be Burly to cause harm because they can tease their victims by talking, like make fun of them and call them names, or maybe knowing something sensitive about them and threaten to spread it out if they did not obey them.
The Second type is social bullying; in this type, bullies try to hurt the reputation and the relationships of the victims by tell other children to stay away from them or by embarrassing them in public. The last type is physical bullying; however, this is the most influential and the most terrifying for victims because now we are not talking about hurt feeling no! We are talking about cause bad physical damage and deliver pain and suffering. At this kind, bullies start to transform to Remorseless person that may do...
...Using material from Item 2B and elsewhere, assess the contribution of functionalist sociologists to our understanding of the family.
The functionalist theory is about the idea of different parts of the body, the body needs certain parts In order to function which relates to society needing certain parts in order to be a society. In general, functionalism is a theory based on consensus which is where people agree on the same norms and values. This is different to Marxism which is a conflict between class and Feminism which is a conflict between genders.
One functionalist that has an understanding of the family is Murdock (1949); Murdock argued that the family provides four essential functions for society. One of these functions is a stable satisfaction of the sex drive, this is important to our society as it satisfies peoples urges in a civilised way which prevents having a ‘free for all’. Another function is the reproduction of the next generation, this is important to our society because without this, society wouldn’t continue as there would not be any new generations to carry it on. A further function is the socialisation of the young, this is important to our society because it enables young people to share norms and values in society. The last function is meeting its members economic needs, this is important to society as it provides food, shelter etc. in order for people in society to survive.
Another functionalist who has an understanding of the family is Parsons...
This bridging work MUST be completed by the time you start your course and it will be assessed in September. The aims are for you to be ready to start learning at post 16 level.
What do you do in your first year?
Exam Board: AQA - all exam, no coursework.
At AS two units are taught;
Unit 1 Families & Households (40% of AS)
Unit 2: Research methods in context to education (60% of AS).
Summer Bridging Work- ESSENTIAL
Research topic: Is the position of men and women in the family equal?
The Division of labour refers to the roles that men and women occupy within the family. Many types of division of labour exist and have changed over time.
Task 1: Research the following types of division of labour and complete the table:
Type of Division of labour
Statistics or studies that support the type of division of labour
Joint conjugal role
Find out the following: What are the definitions for each type of division of labour? Research either statistical evidence or sociological research that supports each type of division of labour – the evidence does not need to be recent. Create a table as seen above.
Task 2: Write two statements; for and against the question “Is the position of men and women in the family equal?” You must include...
TMA04: Compare and contrast two social science views about the ordering of social life
- Define ‘ordered society’
- Define ‘ordered in social situations’
- Macro society – hierarchy, rules, laws, institutions, dispenses knowledge – ordered society
- Micro society – unwritten rules, learnt behaviours, socialisation – ordered social situations
- Outline main views
- We are all acting certain roles in society
- Unwritten rules
- Outline main views
- We are under surveillance
- Big Brother – James Orwell
- Stage control – language
- Ministry of Truth
Buchanan Report and Monderman Thesis
- Using traffic as an example of social order
- What would happen if there was no social order?
- Netherlands – no road markings etc.
- Integration of schools/parks into ‘shared space’ as ‘contextual signals’ = more effective on driving behaviour than signs etc.
TMA04: Compare and contrast two social science views about the ordering of social life
Society comprises lots of diverse and dynamic social groups: students, parents, the working class, politicians, celebrities, as well as colleagues in work places and people in leisure clubs. So how do all of these different social groups interlink and work together in society and how do people know how to behave in different...