Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives certain environments as dangerous or uncomfortable, often due to the environment's vast openness or crowdedness. These situations include, but are not limited to, wide-open spaces, as well as uncontrollable social situations such as the possibility of being met in shopping malls, airports, and on bridges. Agoraphobia is defined within the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in those environments. In the DSM-5, however, Agoraphobia is classified as being separate to panic disorder. The sufferer may go to great lengths to avoid those situations, in severe cases becoming unable to leave their home or safe haven. Although mostly thought to be a fear of public places, it is now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication of panic attacks. However, there is evidence that the implied one-way causal relationship between spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM-IV may be incorrect. Onset is usually between ages 20 and 40 years and more common in women. Approximately 3.2 million, or about 2.2%, of adults in the US between the ages of 18 and 54, suffer from agoraphobia. Agoraphobia can account for approximately 60% of phobias. Studies have shown two different age groups at first onset: early to mid twenties, and early thirties. In response to a traumatic event, anxiety may interrupt the formation of memories and disrupt the learning processes, resulting in dissociation. Depersonalization and derealisation are other dissociative methods of withdrawing from anxiety. Standardized tools such as Panic and Agoraphobia Scale can be used to measure agoraphobia and panic attacks severity and monitor treatment.
Agoraphobia is a condition where the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or where he or she perceives that they have little control. Triggers for this anxiety may include...
Name: Anna Munsch
Class Name: Abnormal Psychology
What diagnosis has been given to this client?
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia
Please outline the major symptoms of this disorder.
According to the DSM, the major symptoms of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia are recurrent panic attacks with anxiety about experiencing another attack. Also present is anxiety being in a public place where escape will be difficult or embarrassing or where it will be difficult to receive assistance in an emergency.
Briefly outline the client’s background (age, race, occupation, etc.)
The clients name is Annie and she is a 24 year old Caucasian woman. She has held a variety of jobs but has consistently had trouble holding on to a job for any length of time. Both of her parents are still living but they do not get along. She currently lives with a group of her friends.
Please describe any factors in the client’s background that might predispose her to this disorder.
In Annie’s interview, she states that she remembers her childhood as being normal but later in the interview, reveals that she experienced abusive experiences at a young age. Also, women are 3 times more likely than men to be diagnosed with Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Furthermore, Annie remembers having night terrors at age 4 and of her parents trying to calm her down. Finally, Annie was also diagnosed with major depression and Obsessive...
...Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia – A Study
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(Date you turn in)
(University you are attending)
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Instructor: (Instructor's name here)
PDA – Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia – A Study
Until recently, not much was known about Agoraphobia, a disorder that in many cases can be almost crippling. Panic disorder is a milder form of Agoraphobia and in its own way can be almost as disabling. Together, these two disorders are referred to as PDA, or Panic Disorder Agoraphobia. Those who suffer from either of these are forced to modify their lives in many ways. With the milder form - panic disorder – these modifications may not be quite so severe, but those who have Agoraphobia may often have to drastically alter their lives in order to even function. While medications such as Olanzapine (Mokhber, & Savadkoohi, 2011) and Imipramine (Marchand, 2008) have been shown to be effective in many cases, they don’t always work for everyone and the side effects can be almost as devastating as the disorder itself.
Agoraphobia is a severe form of anxiety disorder defined by RightHealth.com as a fear of having severe panic-like symptoms in a situation that the sufferer deems difficult, if not impossible to escape; situations such as wide-open spaces, crowds, or uncontrolled social conditions. Claustrophobia, which is the fear of being...
...irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger. Agoraphobia is an intense, irrational fear or anxiety occasioned by the prospect of having to enter certain outdoor locations or open spaces. For example, busy streets, busy stores, tunnels, bridges, public transportation and cars. Traditionally agoraphobia was solely classified as a phobic disorder. However, due to recent studies it is now also viewed as a panic disorder. Panic disorders are characterised by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly (Weiten, 1998).
For a person diagnosed with agoraphobia, there are a number of restrictions and consequences associated with the disorder. A serious consequence is the incidence of severe and paralysing panic attacks. In the early stages of agoraphobia people suffer recurring panic attacks when in certain public places or situations. These attacks cause the person to feel generally uncomfortable in public settings. Eventually, fear of the recurrence of the panic attacks results in an obvious reluctance or refusal to enter all situations associated with the attacks. Other consequences of agoraphobia may include fear of being alone, fear of being in places where escape might be difficult, feelings of helplessness, dependence on others and depression. These consequences place many serious restrictions on a person with this disorder....
AgoraphobiaAgoraphobia is a type of panic disorder, which is though to affect between 1 and 7 percent of the population. This phobia accounts for roughly 60% of people suffering from phobias. This disorder is the fear of being somewhere hard to escape, or where help cannot reach you, when panic strikes. For instance someone with agoraphobia may fear a very crowded party, or a vast empty area. Someone having a panic attack in a certain situation generally causes agoraphobia. After having the attack, the person develops a fear of the situation that caused the attack, and fear of having another attack. People suffering from agoraphobia will go out of their way to avoid situations that they fear will lead them to having a panic attack. Some people with very sever forms of the disorder, will go so far as to never leave their house or safe haven. Although it can occur in anyone, agoraphobia generally manifests around the mid twenties, and is more often found in women than men. Symptoms of agoraphobia include a sense of helplessness, as well as feeling very detached from other people. Agoraphobic people also tend to fear not having control in certain situations. Agoraphobia can be very overpowering, however, it is treatable. One way to help treat agoraphobia, is with the use of exposure therapy. By slowly exposing an agoraphobic person to...
Have you ever wondered if someone with a mental disorder is as easily accepted into social life as someone who is not a sufferer? Those that suffer from any sort of mental disorder are often stereotyped as bizarre and violent. Many are ignorant to how false these stereotypes really are. In fact many who are affected aren’t always distinguishable from those who are not mentally disturbed. For instance, there are many famous Americans who suffer from mental illnesses. Paula Deen is well recognized celebrity known for her scrumptious recipes, drinking straight melted butler on television, and her outgoing bubbly personality. Though she hides it well, Paula had suffered from agoraphobia and depression for over twenty years of her life.
Paula at the age of twenty had what she considered the idle life. Marring her high school sweetheart and raising their two children was everything she could ask for. Then suddenly her world had been turned upside down. The start of all her problems began when her parents died. The sudden death of her parents caused extreme stress for her. She quickly developed server depression. In result of her depression it caused a failing marriage. Her and her husband divorced leaving her feeling empty and lost with no place to go. Paula was on her own raising her two boys and penniless. Coping with so much stress and depression she became prone to anxiety and panic attacks daily. She soon developed a...
Definition: A morbid fear of open spaces/public places
The word “agoraphobia” comes from two Greek words that mean “fear” and “marketplace”. The anxiety associated with agoraphobia leads to avoidance of situations that involve being outside one’s home alone, being in crowds, being on a bridge, or traveling by car or public transportation. Agoraphobia may intensify to the point that it interferes with a person’s ability to take a job outside the home or to carry out such ordinary errands and activities as picking up groceries or going out to a movie.
People with agoraphobia appear to suffer from two distinct types of anxiety. Panic, and the anticipatory anxiety related to fear of future panic attacks. Patients with agoraphobia are sometimes able to endure being in the situations they fear by “gritting their teeth”, or by having a friend or relative accompany them
The symptoms of agoraphobia can be similar to those of specific phobia and social phobia. In agoraphobia and specific phobia, the focus is fear itself; with social phobia, the person’s focus is on how others are perceiving him/her. Patients diagnosed with agoraphobia tend to be more afraid of their own internal physical sensations and similar cues than of the reactions of others perse. In cases of specic phobia, the person fears very specific situations,...