African American Female Leadership in Education
African American Female Leadership in Education
University of Phoenix
Communication Strategies 705
July 18, 2010
Professor Leah Hollis, EdD.
Davis, A. T. (2009). “Empowering African american women in higher education through mentoring.” Journal of the National Society of Allied Health, 6.7, 53(6). Retrieved from http://findgalegroup.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
This article discussed the many efforts that are geared towards more advancement opportunities for African American women in the higher education realm. Such advancements like mentoring programs were suggested to assist in the advancement of African American women into leadership positions. The article also discussed how discrimination against not only women, but also discrimination against African American women and how it continues in the work place. It discussed factors, such as, increased enrollment in colleges and universities and graduation rates of African American women, in addition to how these accomplishments did not matter towards acquiring leadership roles. Barriers to mentoring were sociopolitical issues, glass ceilings, dualism of race and gender, attitudinal barriers and absence of mentoring. Some benefits to mentoring and elements of a strong mentoring program were discussed as well. To conclude, constructive mentoring programs were highly suggested to the success of women leadership expansion.
Grimes, M.L. (2005). Re-Constructing the Leadership Model of Social Justice for African-American Women in Education. Advancing Women in Leadership, 191, pp.1-7. Retrieved from http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com In this brief article, the author provides a social justice model of leadership for African American female education leaders to use to prepare black scholars to carry on the legacy of maintaining a black educational society. A study is conducted involving four...
AfricanAmericans: Historical Journey from 1865 to the Present
HIS: 204: American History Since 1865
Professor Lisa Burgin
July 14, 2014
The AfricanAmerican journey has been one of trials and tribulations which they suffered greatly to achieve freedom and success. The battle has led the citizens of this nation to have witnessed the first AfricanAmerican President of the United States. The journey that has brought AfricanAmericans to the present situation has seen intermittent successes and numerous setbacks. Perseverance from many generations has brought about a gradual but progressive change. The journey begun in a state of slavery, through the act of slavery racism was seen in its rarest forms.
The long journey emerged from AfricanAmericans being sold to white traders and transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Slaves were auctioned off and sold to the highest bidders. AfricanAmericans were considered personal property of the white man and viewed as economic commodity. Their strength and endurance was formed as a result of working in the fields and kitchens from sunrise to sunset. The slaves lived off of the bare necessities in life. This act of slavery existed for decades and helped to shape the course of...
The AfricanAmerican culture is one of the more diverse cultures out there. Many of these people practice different beliefs. AfricanAmericans live in all parts of the world and just like other cultures AfricanAmericans have people that live in what is considered poverty some that are considered middle class and some considered upper class.AfricanAmericans come with a lot of interesting thing like the language they speak which is called Ebonics and all the different stereotypes with black American some being negative and some positive.
There are three main religions practiced in the black American culture. The first is the most common and that is Christianity, Which is known as the black church. Christianity started back in the slavery days. Many slaves that were brought over were stripped of the African belief system and denied free religious practice; this forced them to become Christians. However slaves managed to hold onto some practices by putting them into Christian worship in secret meetings that were held. These practices include dancing, shouts and African rhythms and enthusiastic singing. Another religion practice in the black culture is Islam. Islam was founded in Detroit Michigan in the 1930’s by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad. Many...
...discrimination concerning AfricanAmericans. By my reasoning, along with many sociologists and psychologists, racism is the root cause of AfricanAmerican race socialization. Race socialization is the theory of verbal and non-verbal messages being transmitted to specific ethnic groups for the positive or negative development of behaviors, philosophies, morals, and attitudes concerning the significance and importance of racial stratification, intergroup interactions, and personal and group identity. The timespan in which I will be surveying connects milestones of race socialization with many of the most significant moments in United States history. The primary sources I will be using as support for this paper will be several works by W.E.B. Du Bois1 and a book by Dr. Faye Belgrave entitled AfricanAmerican Psychology: From Africa to America2. The psychological effect that racism and race socialization has had on AfricanAmericans is more than apparent not only through texts written by various sociologists and psychologists, but also throughout history. I will focus on a specific fifty-year span when race socialization took effect, racism was socially acceptable and ultimately racism was combatted. It is my purpose in this paper to discuss, examine and determine the psychological effect that racism and race socialization has had on American citizens...
...to the Civil War, many AfricanAmericans were the minorities. They were not even considered citizens in the United States. During this period AfricanAmerican were slaves, working in fields and being servants for the white slave owners. During the year of 1861-1865, the union states were fighting the federate states in which the union won and slavery was later abolished. After this period, things for AfricanAmericans did not change. Blacks were segregated from whites, they were still considered minorities, and blacks are still mistreated by the whites. Although AfricanAmericans were freed overtime, the life for AfricanAmericans did not change in the wake of the Civil War.
Violence was the worst during the segregation time period. Blacks were mistreated and often looked down upon. There was always a threat by terrorist violence. The Ku Klux Klan, Knights of White Camellia, and other terrorists killed many blacks to keep them from voting and participating in public life. Founded in 1865, the Ku Klux Klan did everything they could to attack he blacks from having their rights. The KKK’s main form main form of violence towards blacks was lynching. Meaning, the Ku Klux Klan was known to kill AfricanAmericans by hanging for an alleged offense with or without a legal trial. In the south, over 2,000...
Amount of Blacks in college
1980: Impressive 718,000
1987: Growing more slowly, 855,000
*1988: Sliding back down to 785,000
*In 1988, the enrollment of black men declined, while it increased for women. There were 179,000 black women in college, then black men.
Percentage of highs school graduates going to college
1960-1970: Males exceeded women
1980's: women overtake men and never lost the lead
Popular concentration in education in the 1980's
1981: business and management were the most popular of all black bachelor's degree recipients. 13,325 blacks earned a bachelor's degree in business and management (40% earned in historically black colleges).
The Black and White Gap
"The average scores of black students have remained well below those of whites, and at age 17, the reading achievement of black students was lower last year than it was in 1988a depressing reversal of the gains made over the previous two decades," Michael T. Nettles, the vice chairman of the National Assessment Governing Board, said at a press conference held here late last month to release the results. The independent panel oversees National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
In just about every age group and in every subject, the test-score gap between white and African-American students has grown since 1986, reversing a trend in which the...
...citizen of a state that offers complete equality, I realise that you are unaware of the racism that I experience on a daily basis and although slavery was abolished in 1865, in the Southern States of America, black Americans have still not achieved complete equality. For example:
- The Ku Klux Klan beat up and 'lynch' black people. An action meaning to kill without legal sanction. The organisation was set up in 1865 to frighten, beat up and lynch black people. The group shows violence and discriminatory prejudice against the Black population, gaining millions of supporters before, during and now after the 1920s. The KKK fight to preserve and to maintain White supremacy throughout its campaign.
In 1954 (May 17th) with the help of the NAACP, Reverend Brown (against the Board of Education of Topeka) won the right to send his children to a white school in the US Supreme Court.
The decision of school desegregation, triggered a wave of resistance throughout the South that ultimately led to the return of the Ku Klux Klan. In its initial stages, the resistance was headed by the White Citizens Council. The Council are largely composed of respectable citizens in a position local power throughout the South. This is worrying to the black community because as African- Americans, we do not have the right to vote and if white supporters of segregation continue to grow within the US government, gaining power, this puts a larger...
...economic necessity, I think that slavery was based on economic necessity. When the slaves were first brought to Virginia in 1619 they were not traded because of their skin but because the boats carrying the slaves was on a shortage of food, because of this reason the ship traded slaves for food and supplies. According to http://pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html “From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery” “In the early years of the colony, many Africans and poor whites-- most of the labors came from the English working class-- stood on the same ground. Black and white men and women worked side-by-side in the fields. Black and white men who broke their servant contract were equally punished.” This shows that both whites and blacks worked together on equal grounds without discrimination based on skin color, the only discrimination that there might have been was the discrimination of being poor. It was later that skin color was used like a leash. “Historically, the English only enslaved non-Christians, and not, in particular, Africans.” This quote shows that even back in time people were enslaved because they were not a certain religion, it does not describe being enslaved because you were a certain color. Even the Incas of Peru enslaved people of defeated tribes and used them as workers or as sacrifice for their sun god. People have enslaved each other even before the word racism came into play. Also from “Indentured Servitude to Racial...
...African American’s had a second class status in 1865, therefore their life was hard. By the nineteenth century slavery had been abolished throughout America’s Northern states, however it continued across the South.
Between 1890 and 1910, the southern states government introduced the ‘Jim Crow’ laws, which allowed legal segregation. This created separate facilities for blacks and whites, these included education, healthcare, transport and public facilities such as; toilets, bus stations and drinking fountains. Jim Crow laws did not help improve the life of AfricanAmericans due to the segregating population; blacks did not have equal rights and opportunities the same as white people. The Jim Crow laws were challenged by Plessy vs Ferguson in 1896, as they believed it was a violation of the American Constitution and were therefore illegal laws. This case was not successful, as it changed nothing between black and white American citizens.
A major turning point for African American’s was the Second World War. Although segregation continued during the war, for example, black soldiers had different canteens and were transported to the battlefield in different vehicles, and many were employed as cooks and cleaners so overall there were denied the right to fight for their country. Black Americans who did make the front line were often not given enough training and...