Adult/Youth Nonformal Vocational and Technical Education
In 1974 the Ministry of Education developed nonformal vocational programs to serve out-of-school youths and adults. In respect of policy measures and institutional reforms, the purpose of adult/youth and nonformal education is to provide an opportunity to those who were unable to avail themselves of formal educational opportunities. The objective is to provide vocational training, along with basic literacy and numeracy skills, so that each individual can participate and contribute more effectively to his/her well-being, and to society. Such adult/youth and nonformal vocational technical education is conducted on a nonformal basis through programs offered by Rural Education Centers, School of Appropriate Farm Technology, Manzini Industrial Training Center, to name a few. The following comprise some of the major adult/youth nonformal vocational and technical education training centers. Manzini Industrial Training Center-Emakhonweni
As a result of the pressing need for vocational and technical skills training as an alternative form of education, Manzini Industrial Training Center (MITC) was established with the aim of giving its trainees useful and practical skills in a trade or craft which may help them find a job upon completion. The MITC provides skills training for unemployed youth between the ages of 18 and 25 years. These are out-of-school youth who are at risk. Fundamental to the program is the acquisition of basic vocational skills which will enable a young person to earn his/her own living whether by self- or waged employment. In most of the courses offered at the Center, upon completion of the two year course in basic skills, the trainees take the relevant Swaziland Government Trade Test-Grade III with the intention of going on to Government Trade Test level-Grade II. This enables those who have not had the opportunity to complete high school (grade 12) to obtain a qualification which is recognized for pay purposes, in the wage employment sector. However, for those trainees whose desire is to become self-employed, they can apply for placement in the Business Management Extension Program (BMEP), a one year course which offers facilities and training, under the "sheltered workshop concept," to prospective entrepreneurs. The MITC has an enrollment of over 200 trainees receiving skills training in 13 areas. Agriculture, Sewing, and Upholstery are one year courses in duration whereas Building, Carpentry, Electrical, Metal Work, Motor Mechanics, Plumbing, Printing, Panel Beating, Small Engine Repair, and Spray Painting are two years in duration. The approach employed in the training utilizes a combination of on the job training and theory lectures. Remaining as the principal training approach is "Training through production" (Manzini Industrial Training Center, Annual Report 1990/91). Business Management Extension Program
In 1986 the management of Manzini Industrial Training Center (MITC) established the Business Management Extension Program (BMEP). BMEP is an indigenous small enterprise development project set up to combat the problem of unemployed youth who have already acquired vocational technical skills. With a grant from United States Agency for International Development (USAID), an administration building, warehouse, and eight workshops were built. BMEP is a unique institution in Swaziland that fills a specific niche: training and technical assistance for small and microbusinesses and the development of new enterprises (Gamedze, 1993, Personal interview). BMEP's mission is to promote small enterprise development by providing trade and business skills training, individual business consultancy, and financial assistance to persons who are matured, have job experience and vocational skills, work for themselves full-time, and exhibit entrepreneurial traits. The mission statement contributes to the goal of increasing employment generated by...
...Vocationaleducation (education based on occupation or employment) (also known asvocational education and training or VET) is education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts and careers at various levels from a trade, a craft, technician, or a professional position in engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, pharmacy, law etc. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation. It is sometimes referred to as technicaleducation as the trainee directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques. In the UK some higher technician engineering positions that require 4-5 year apprenticeship require academic study to HNC / HND or higher City and Guilds level. Vocationaleducation may be classified as teaching procedural knowledge. This can be contrasted with declarative knowledge, as used in education in a usually broader scientificfield, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge, characteristic of tertiary education. Vocationaleducation can be at the secondary, post-secondary level,further education level and can interact with the apprenticeship system. Increasingly, vocationaleducation can be...
...SDPI Research and News Bulletin
Vol. 17, No. 2, April — June 2010
Technical & VocationalEducation & Training for Females in Pakistan
Females in Pakistan tend to be less visible with respect to their enrolment in education, labour force participation and contribution to economic activities. Pakistan is a labour-intensive economy with a high demand for skilled manpower. It is noteworthy that current female participation in the labour force is merely 26.48 percent and stands at the lowest among neighbouring countries in the region (World Development Indicators, The World Bank, 2008). This demand for skilled labour can only be met through increased participation of females in the labour force and the need still remains to equip them with relevant skills.
Ownership of institutes within the public sector do not fall under one purview but rather come under the TechnicalEducation & Vocational Training Authorities (TEVTAs), Directorate of Manpower Training, Directorate of TechnicalEducation, Pakistan Bait-ul-Maal, Fauji Foundation, Social Welfare Special Education & Women Development Department, Industries and Commerce Department and training centres established under the armed forces. It is found that there are 442 public sector female institutes, out of which 397 are...
Arlen Etllng. Assistant Professor The Pennsylvania State University Can you list specific differences between forma1 and nonformaleducation? Is informal education the same as nonformaleducation? Why do some agricultural educators spell nonformal with a hyphen (non-formal) while others do not? Are these questions really pertinent to the profession? I believe that these are important questions. I believe that agricultural educators do a disservice to the profession when they use such basic terms in an unscholarly manner. I believe that important distinctions exist between formal and nonformaleducation and between nonformal and informal education. I believe that agricultural educators need to be aware of the distinctions in order to be effective educators, especially when moving from formal settings to nonformal settings. I believe that the differences of opinion between classroom teachers and extension educators will never be resolved until the distinctions are fully understood and appreciated. The purpose of this philosophical article is to express a position and invite response. My position (summarized in the previous paragraph) is based on preparation as an agricultural educator (B.S. & M.S. in Agricultural Education) and on experience in teaching in...
It is unfortunate that the importance of vocationaleducation has diminished over the past twenty five years. The emphasis that used to be placed on learning a trade that would provide a living has disappeared with the typewriter and slide rule. We are no longer encouraging students to become skilled tradespersons. The vocational mentoring programs of recent past have been supplanted with SAT Prep courses. Where will we find skilled mechanics, plumbers, welders, farmers and masons in the coming decades? Who will care for our children, repair our cars, cut our hair, cook and serve our meals at a restaurant? A point has been reached in American Education in particular, where the skilled laborer is disrespected and undue importance is placed on academic secondary education. We have undervalued the experience that can be gleaned through practical application in favor of the classroom lecture.
Unlike the European academic model, the US education system pushes all students toward pursuing a post high school academic path. Statistics show that only 25% of all students complete post high school degrees. However high schools routinely tout their matriculation to college statistics with great aplomb. The higher the percentage of college bound graduates, the more prestigious and successful is the school and its faculty. Those...
...CHALLENGES FOR ADULT STUDENTS IN FOSTERING EDUCATION
Higher education continues to change, particularly in terms of the student body. In the past, colleges and universities were often populated by recent high school graduates who were training for their first jobs. Today, the higher education institution includes people in just about every phase of life. No longer are people expected to stay in the same vocational field, and schools are increasingly gearing their programs and services to older learners who are interested in new fields, career changes, and simply learning about unique subjects. Of course, it can be a bumpy road for some adults, particularly if they have not been in school for quite some time. While some of these adults may be confident when it comes to professional skills, it can be an intimidating experience to step onto a college campus. With that in mind, here are a few of the major challenges that are sometimes experienced by adult learners.
The first challenged has something to do with time and energy, and how it is prioritized. The job or the family takes too much energy and the person does not intend to use the free time left on learning activities. We call this category "lack of time and/or energy". At first sight, this factor falls well into Cross (1981) and Darkenwald & Merriam (1982) situational barriers, that is barriers related to...
...THERE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN VOCATIONAL ASPECTS TO SCHOOLING IN AUSTRALIA. HOWEVER, IN RECENT TIMES THERE HAS BEEN AN INCREASED EMPHASIS ON THIS ASPECT OF SCHOOLING WITHIN BOTH THE GENERAL CURRICULUM AND THOSE AREAS THAT HAVE A PARTICULAR VOCATIONAL FLAVOUR.
IN WHAT WAYS DOES THIS EMPHASIS PROVIDE A BROADER OR NARROWER CONCEPTION OF EDUCTION FOR SCHOOL STUDENTS?
YOUR RESPONSE NEEDS TO REFER TO: (I) THE AIMS OF THE NEW VOCATIONALISM' AND HOW IT IS CURRENTLY BEING MANIFESTED IN SECONDARY SCHOOLING; (II) HOW EQUALITY OF OUTCOMES FOR ALL SENIOR STUDENTS CAN BE MANAGED AT AT TIME OF HIGH STUDENT RETENTION IN THE POST-COMPULSORY YEARS AND (III) A CRITIQUE OF THE CURRENT VET IN SCHOOLS POLICY.
Aims and Origins of New Vocationalism
What is vocationaleducation? That depends on the period in history and whom you ask. There is probably no greater bone of contention or confusion among educators. Vocationaleducation or educating students to fulfil their vocation or calling in life is such a broad definition. Traditionally it has been seen as an education for those not taking up tertiary studies, for those who instead undertake hands on training before entering the world of work. If this then is the definition, entry to some of the most highly regarded professions, is through vocationaleducation. Take for example the doctor, teacher or the architect....
I think technicaleducation is more of a valuable asset to society than liberal arts educational fields. Technical schools offer job specific coursework which are usually jobs that are high in demand. When it comes to the cost of your tuition, its way less expensive than a four year college
. Technical schools cost less than most colleges. It takes less time to complete because you don’t have to take two years of history and English courses for a simple career like becoming a massage therapist. You spend more time really learning things about the field, while others in traditional colleges are in a classroom. According to Mech Institute 23.6% students take 7yrs to obtain a bachelor’s degree, and cost double the tuition to go to get a liberal education than a technicaleducation.
You learn in a more hands on way. You learn from a person who is a master in the field you’re learning about. Technical colleges offer apprenticeships and when done with training you will be able to do the tasks needed to be done. You can go right to work without any additional training. For employers this is huge because a lot of companies spend a lot of money training employees that sometimes just quit. It costs employers a lot of money to train people just for them to quit over time.
Traditional colleges are not for everyone....
...Essay On TechnicalEducation In India
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