Glaser Health Products manufactures medical items for the health care industry. Production involves machining, assembly and painting. Finished units are then packed and shipped. The financial controller is interested to introduce an activity-based costing (ABC) system to allocate (or distribute) indirect costs to products. Indirect costs, as distinct from direct costs, cannot be unambiguously linked to specific products. The controller would like to calculate product costs based on ABC for planning and control, not inventory valuation. Under an ABC system, the allocation of costs to products is achieved through at least four analytical steps. Firstly, costs are grouped into activity levels. Secondly, cost drivers are selected for each activity level to link activities with costs. Thirdly, for each activity level, a cost function is defined to arithmetically describe the relationship between cost drivers and costs. Finally, a unit allocated cost is calculated for each product (Schneider, 2012). This paper outlines a process for introducing an ABC system at Glaser. The paper is divided into six sections. The first section groups cost categories identified at Glaser by division. The second section groups cost categories by division and activity level. The third section identifies specific cost drivers for each activity level. The fourth section explains preliminary stage allocation. The fifth section explains primary stage allocation. The final section summarizes the main conclusions. Cost Categories by Division
Glaser is organized into three functional divisions - Operations, Sales, and Administration. Operations is the only cost or activity center. Glaser recognizes 22 cost categories. These cost categories are grouped by division in Table 1, shown in the appendix. Cost Categories by Division by Activity Level
The second step in an ABC system involves grouping costs based on the level of activity at which they are generated. An activity involves the movement or handling of any part, component, or finished product within the relevant organizational unit. The rationale for this grouping is that costs at each activity level are determined by different cost drivers. Four levels of activity are commonly recognized – unit, batch, product and facility level. Unit-level activities are the most granular level of activity. They are performed each time a sub-unit is produced. Unit-level activities are on-going and reflect basic production tasks. Direct labor or direct materials are examples. Costs of these activities mainly vary according to the number of units produced. Batch-level activities are relevant to batch (rather than continuous) production processes. They are performed each time a batch of product sub-units is produced. Typical examples of these costs relate to machine setups, order processing, and materials han¬dling. Costs of these activities vary mainly according to the number of batches produced, not the number of units in each the batch. Product-level activities support production of each product. The costs of these activities vary mainly according to the number of separate product models. Examples include maintaining bills of materials, processing engineering changes, and product testing routines. Facility-level activities are common to a variety of different products and are the most difficult to link to individual product-specific activities. These activities sustain the production process at an overall production plant or facil¬ity. Examples include plant supervision, rental expense and other building occupancy costs. Some firms, including Glaser, choose not to allocate facility-level costs to product costs.
Based on these activity level distinctions, the 22 Glaser cost categories may be grouped by division and activity level as shown in Table 2. By way of digression, it is worth mentioning that as a broad generalization, unit-level activities tend to generate mainly variable costs while and...
...instance: location, products/services, branding, advertising, marketing etc. But even with all that taken care of how will the managers, auditors and even employee’s know if they are being successful or not? This is where strategies of accounting come to play. A very successful method is ActivityBasedCosting. This method has continued to help companies by keeping track of their spending and figuring out ways to improve their flaws. The purpose of this essay is to give a three hundred sixty degree knowledge of ABC. Starting from an in depth description of the method, how it has evolved from the past and how it has provoked other alternatives to assist it.
Activitybasedcosting is a strategy used by managers to determine where to spend money. This contrasts the traditional costing system (Marx, 2009). Activitybasedcosting provides a lot more benefits for the company and displays a more clear look at how the company is doing economically (Cooper, 1991). It allows managers to see where to spend money, and on which resources to focus their spending (Cooper, 1991). Managers should cut back spending on resources, and at the same time increase the output of their products (Cooper, 1991). There are several benefits to using the activitybasedcosting method, and...
A Discussion on Activity-BasedCosting
ACC-532 Graduate Paper
A Discussion on Activity-BasedCosting
When we think of cost of accounting it is easy to come up with numerous different cost accounting methods which is because over the year’s cost accounting has developed in numerous ways to accommodate different types of situations. While every type of cost accounting is important and has its own benefit and disadvantages this paper will focus on what I believe is one of the most important cost accounting methods. The method that this research paper will focus on is the activity-basedcosting method, more commonly known as the ABC method. “A costing method that first assigns costs to activities and then to goods and services based on how much each good or service uses the activities” (Hilton, 2014), this is the definition of the ABC method according to the textbook Advanced Cost Accounting. While I believe that this definition gives us a good idea of the general idea of what the ABC method is it does not even begin to crack the surface of how important this costing method is and how essential it is to the companies that utilize it. In order to get a broad understanding of the ABC method this research paper will focus on three focus points. The first focus point...
...consistently improve their service or product quality, lower their service or product costs, and eliminate services or products that incur profit losses. Using a traditional costing system the portion of overhead costs allocated to the production of a service or product is determined by the total of direct labor hours used in production of the service or product. Companies implement refined cost allocation systems such as the activitybasedcosting method with the intention of helping management strategically plan because these systems provide quality information to help management make informed decisions. In this essay, I will examine the use of cost allocations, the activitybasedcosting method, and how companies can implement and benefit from activitybasedcosting.
The allocation of costs serves four primary purposes throughout a company. The first is to present the information management needs to make an informed decision. The second is the reduction of non-essential uses of common company resources. The third is to encourage management to assess the efficiency of services provided internally. Finally, the fourth reason is the calculation of the “full cost” of a service or product to be used in price determination...
...ActivityBasedCostingActivity-BasedCosting (ABC) was developed as a practical solution for problems
Associated with traditional cost management systems. In the early 1980’s many
Companies began to realize that their traditional accounting systems were
generating inaccurate costing information. Traditional cost accounting systems
that were designed to address the issues of inventory valuation for external
audiences have two deficiencies. The inability to accurately determine actual
total product and service costs and the inability to provide useful information to
management for purposes of making operating decisions.
Users of ABC
Businesses want to know which of their products and services make or lose
money so they can remain competitive. To get a handle on this information, some companies have embraced activity-basedcosting/management (abc/m) to help them tract product and customer profitability and reduce operating costs. armed with the facts from, the abc/m data, managers can make better decisions about how they can use resources and can improve business processes.
Activity-basedcosting is an accounting methodology that links the following
elements; costs, which are the expenditures are classified as...
...ActivityBasedCosting can be defined as an accounting methodology that assigns costs to activitiesbased on their use of resources, rather than products or services. This enables resources and other associated costs to be more accurately attributed to the products and the services which they use. It doesn’t change or eliminate any costs; it provides detailed information about how costs are consumed. (Online manager-net.com).
Traditional cost accounting looks at what is spent, while ABC methods look at what is done in terms of activities. In ABC it is much easier to identify opportunities to reduce costs and improve performance, while maintaining the quality of care provided.
Traditional Cost Systems use cost allocation methods, do not focus on where or why costs occur, Report information that is accounting oriented and inaccurate. These systems are also not easily understood by operational managers, since the focus is fiscal.
Whereas ActivityBasedCosting assigns costs to activitiesbased on the resources they consume. ABC provides insights into the sources of costs and the possible impact of different decisions. It also provides the information required to take action and realize performance breakthroughs.
Implementation of ActivityBased...
... * Activity-BasedCosting (Encyclopedia of Management)
* Activity-BasedCosting (Encyclopedia of Small Business)
Activity-basedcosting (ABC) is an accounting method that allows businesses to gather data about their operating costs. Costs are assigned to specific activitiesuch as planning, engineering, or manufacturingnd then the activities are associated with different products or services. In this way, the ABC method enables a business to decide which products, services, and resources are increasing their profitability, and which are contributing to losses. Managers are then able to generate data to create a better budget and gain a greater overall understanding of the expenses that are required to keep the company running smoothly. Generally, activity-basedcosting is most effective when used over a long period of time, as opposed to shorter-term solutions such as the theory of constraints (TOC).
Activity-basedcosting first gained notoriety in the early 1980s. It emerged as a logical alternative to traditional cost management systems that tended to produce insufficient results when it came to allocating...
Instructor Bradley Johnson
December 17, 2012
In business, there are two separate costing methods that a firm can use. One of those methods is called traditional costing system and the other is activity-basedcosting. Activity-basedcosting (ABC) is a costing method that focuses on identifying activities which allocates the costs of each activity a firm uses. From our text, it identifies Activity-basedCosting as “a two-stage productcosting method that assigns costs first to activities and then to the productsbased on each product’s use of activities” (Lanen, 2011, p. 329). A firm employing such a system provides a better understanding of the goods and services that it uses. Developing such a system in a firm comes from proper planning. When developing a firm, it is effective to follow certain steps to identify the process to attain the goals the firm has set. At times, many firms set certain examples by the managers to help understand the direction in which the firm is heading to become more effective. Activity-based...